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EACEA National Policies Platform:Eurydice
Teachers and Education Staff


9.Teachers and Education Staff

Last update: 14 February 2024

In the Spanish Education System, teachers can be non-university and university depending on the level they teach.

The main Acts regulating the teaching profession for the different educational stages are:

Non-university teachers

Initial required teacher training 

The initial training required to teach at each of the educational levels according to Article 13 of Royal Decree 276/2007, approving admission, access and the acquisition of new specialities in the teaching profession, as amended by Final Provision 2.1 of Royal Decree 800/2022,  is as follows:

Educational level Number of degrees Type of degree required
First cycle of Pre-Primary Education (0-3 years old) 1 Advanced Vocational Training Cycle in Early Childhood Education.
First and second cycle of Pre-Primary Education (0-6 years old) 1 Early Childhood Education Teacher's Degree.
Primary education  1 Primary Education Teacher's Degree.
Compulsory Secondary Education (ESO), Bachillerato and Vocational Training (VT), Official Language Schools 2

PhD, Bachelor's degree, degree in Engineering or Architecture, or the corresponding degree or other equivalent qualifications for teaching purposes.

Pedagogical and teaching training at postgraduate level (University Master's Degree in Teacher Training for Secondary Education, Bachillerato, Vocational Training and Language Teaching). For those specialities that cannot access a Master's programme, an equivalent official certification will be required from 1 September 2015.

Specialised Education:

  • Artistic education
  • Sports education 

Official university degree (Bacherlors or equivalent).

Pedagogical and teaching training at postgraduate level (University Master's Degree in Teacher Training for Secondary Education, Bachillerato, Vocational Training and Language Teaching).

Source: Drawn up by Eurydice Spain-Spanish Network for Information on Education (INEE, MEFD) on the basis of State current regulations.

Working conditions

According to Law 4/2019 on the improvement of teaching and learning conditions in non-university education, working conditions may vary depending on:

  • the ownership of the school: public or private;
  • the contractual relationship with the administration or educational institution (e.g. in public schools being a civil servant, interim or labour staff);
  • the educational level they teach;
  • employment category (for example, in public schools, being secondary teachers or senior teachers).

As for public educational institutions, there can be differences amongst the various autonomous communities.

Continuing professional development

It is a right and a professional responsibility of non-university teachers.

Article 103 of the LOE establishes that the education authorities shall plan teacher training activities, guarantee a diversified and free offer of these activities and establish the appropriate measures to encourage the participation of teachers. 

The LOE and LOMLOE set a series of guidelines that must be respected by the Continuing Professional Development programmes offered by the education authorities responsible for planning and organising them in their jurisdiction. They must provide teachers with a diversified offer of activities and cater for their training needs, as well as establishing other training priority guidelines. This legislation stresses the need to improve the processes of initial training and access to the teaching profession, as well as teachers' continuing professional development. 

The Ministry of Education, Vocational Training and Sports (MEFD), through the National Institute of Educational Technologies and Teacher Training (INTEF), establishes on a yearly basis the priority areas to which continuing teacher training plans must adhere. 

It also offers State Continuing Professional Development programmes and it establishes the appropriate agreements with other institutions to this end.

University teachers

Initial required teacher training 

Article 77 of the Organic Law of the University System (LOSU) establishes the general hiring rules for teaching staff. There is no obligation to have any teaching qualifications, although some universities promote training activities among their teaching staff to acquire teaching skills.

In public universities, initial teacher training may differ between civil servants and hired teachers.

In private (non-profit and for-profit) universities, collective agreements regulate the initial training required, which depends on the professional status of the teaching staff.

Working conditions

These conditions depend on the ownership of the institution:

  • public universities: governed by the same regulations as those for non-university teaching staff, in addition to other applicable regulations;
  • private universities (non-profit and for-profit):  governed by the collective agreements applicable to them.

Lifelong learning

The universities themselves are responsible for organising in-service training activities, which are optional but necessary in order to receive certain salary supplements.