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EACEA National Policies Platform:Eurydice
Ongoing reforms and policy developments


14.Ongoing reforms and policy developments

Last update: 16 April 2024

This chapter provides a thematic and chronological overview of national reforms and policy developments since 2022.

The introduction of the chapter describes the overall education strategy and the key objectives across the whole education system. It also looks at how the education reform process is organised and who are the main actors in the decision-making process.
The section on ongoing reforms and policy developments groups reforms in the following broad thematic areas that largely correspond to education levels:

  • Early childhood education and care
  • General school education
  • Vocational education and training
  • Higher education
  • Adult education and training.

Inside each thematic area, reforms are organised chronologically. The most recent reforms are described first.

Overall national education strategy and key objectives

The Greek parliament adopts the laws, while the government sets the rules for pre-school, school, post-secondary and tertiary education.
The overall educational strategy and the key objectives of the educational system are published in laws and regulations.
The Greek education system is under the central responsibility and supervision of the Ministry of Education, Religious Affairs and Sports.

The Ministry of Education, Religious Affairs and Sports implements a series of policies and initiatives aimed at improving the effectiveness and efficiency of education in both content and procedures.

New education policy

According to the new education policy as described in the Annual Action Plan of the Ministry of Education, Religious Affairs & Sports, changes are being implemented in all levels of education, which are carried out through legislation, ministerial decisions and wider actions.

National priorities

Education and care in early childhood

The national goal is to develop a common educational curriculum in all kindergartens in the country, to increase participation in early childhood education, and we emphasize early detection of developmental challenges in children with the aim of early intervention.

Formulation of a National Framework for the Professional Development of Teachers

A comprehensive framework of high quality initial education and training and continuous in-service training and professional development for teachers.

School education

Special Education 

Creation of curricula for special education school structures, appropriately weighted according to the type of special educational needs.

Reinforcemnt of the all-day primary school - All-day kindergarten (Law 4957/2022)

From the school year 2022/23, the all-day primary school  offers extended school hours until 5.30 pm (up to 2 additional hours). The new full-day primary school programme extends the teaching time for study/preparation in language and mathematics, while enriching it with a significant number of creative and engaging activities.

Multiple book

The new books, together with the complementary digital material as an integral part of them, will be available in digital format in September 2024 and in print format in September 2025.

New curricula

From 2024 the emphasis shifts from the subject matter, the teachers and the teaching process to the students and the intended/expected learning outcomes. The new General Education Curricula will be universally implemented in 2024, following relevant training and development of the multiple textbook.

The Curricula determine the what, the how and the why of the learning process for each lesson, class and level. 

The revision of the Curricula seeks to reorient school education, based on scientific developments and the emerging demands of the society of the future. The new Curricula integrate the positive elements of the previous ones, whilst responding, first and foremost, to the needs of all students, to the new social reality and context in sciences as regards teaching, learning, subjects and the practices applied, as well as the development of skills that are essential to the citizens of the 21st century.

The new Curricula have as their starting point the learning outcomes, i.e. everything the student needs to know, understand and be able to apply after completing each learning process.  Basically, this means a reverse process, where the basis of planning is the learning outcomes and all the other parameters depend on their definition (

Higher education

Strengthening the Public University - Framework for the operation of non-profit branches of foreign universities (private universities)

The purpose of law 5094/2024 is to regulate the licensing, establishment and operation in Greece of branches of parent university institutions in the form of Legal Entities of University Education in a manner consistent with the constitutional purpose of higher education. Branches of foreign universities award higher education qualifications, are associated with higher education institutions located and recognised in other Member States of the European Union or in third countries, and are licensed after a specific evaluation procedure by the competent institutions of the country.

Vocational education

Strengthening of the national system of vocational education and training and other urgent provisions 

The purpose of law 5082/2024 is to further strengthen the National System of Vocational Education and Training, established by law no. 4763/2020 (A' 254), through: 

  1. The expansion of cooperation between vocational education and vocational training; and 

  2. The substantial improvement of synergy between the different levels of the National Qualifications Framework (NQF), with the ultimate aim of upgrading the knowledge, competences and skills of their graduates.

Overview of the education reform process and drivers

Typically, the reform process is a political initiative launched by elected officials (members of Parliament) or the Ministers or appointed officials for Education and Religious Affairs.

Input for reforms or initiatives may also originate from different stakeholders, including government, regional and local authorities, non-governmental and non-profit organisations, employers and employee unions, and businesses. Besides, reforms may be shaped by international influences and trends.

The Hellenic Authority for Higher Education proposes the strategy for higher education to the Minister. Similarly, the main advisory body for primary and secondary education is the Institute for Education Policy. The Ministry of Education, Religious Affairs and Sports decides on the strategic plans for all levels of education, leaving a certain amount of autonomy for specific issues to the decentralized bodies. The implementation of strategy and compliance to directives is assigned to the commanding regional administration, i.e. Regional Education Directorates. The regional administration bodies supervise the school units in their area of jurisdiction. The overall education strategy is included in the Government Programme

For more details, see above “Overall national education strategy and key objectives”.