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EACEA National Policies Platform:Eurydice
Teachers and education staff


9.Teachers and education staff

Last update: 7 March 2023

The national legislation distinguishes between:

  • school education teachers: teachers working in the school education system, which comprises not only early childhood and school education, but also adult education provided in schools and other educational institutions for adults; and
  • academic teachers: teachers working in the higher education system.

Different regulations are in place for school education teachers and academic teachers.

School education teachers

Initial education and training:

Initial education and training is provided within the higher education sector as part of first-, second- and long-cycle programme, and non-degree postgraduate programmes.

In terms of organisation, there are two models: a concurrent model, which is predominating, and a consecutive model.

Initial education and training comprises compulsory subject-specific training and training in psychology, pedagogy and teaching methodology.

Conditions of service discussed in this chapter cover:

  • planning policy and monitoring of teachers
  • entry to the profession and conditions of service
  • induction programme
  • professional status
  • replacement measures
  • supporting measures
  • remuneration system
  • working time and holidays
  • professional promotion grades, transfer, and termination of the employment relationship
  • retirement and pension schemes.

In-service training / continuing professional development

Teachers are required to develop their professional skills in line with the needs of their schools.

Participation in in-service training is taken into account in performance appraisal, and the results of the performance appraisal are, in turn, taken into account in the procedure for professional promotion of teachers.


Academic teachers

Groups of academic staff / academic teachers:

  • research-and-teaching staff
  • research staff and
  • teaching staff.

Initial education and training:

National legislation does not specify initial training requirements or paths for academic teachers. The employment of prospective academic teachers is based on qualification requirements which are laid down in the legislation for individual positions available to academic staff.

Academic teachers are not required to complete pedagogical training or hold a pedagogical / teaching qualification.  

Conditions of service discussed in this chapter cover:

  • conditions of employment
  • professional status
  • remuneration system
  • working time
  • holidays
  • professional promotion opportunities.

In-service training / continuing professional development

Academic staff and, in broader terms, the science and higher education sector have a special role in society. They not only contribute to advancing science but also to improving social cohesion, shaping moral standards and enhancing social capital. Therefore, on the one hand, academic staff are required by legislation (Art. 115 of the Law on Higher Education and Science) to develop continuously their professional competence; on the other hand, they have full autonomy in this respect, with no guidelines such as those for school teachers.



Acts of Parliament

Regulations of the Minister of Education and Science (until 1 January 2021, regulations issued by two ministers: the Minister of National Education and the Minister of Science and Higher Education)

Regulations of the Minister of Health

Regulations of the Minister of Culture and National Heritage (between March and October 2021, regulations issued by the Minister of Culture, National Heritage and Sport) Regulation of the Minister of Culture and National Heritage of 5 October 2022 on the performance appraisal of teachers in art schools (Rozporządzenie Ministra Kultury i Dziedzictwa Narodowego z dnia 5 października 2022 r. w sprawie oceny pracy nauczycieli szkół artystycznych)

Regulations of the Minister of Justice

Regulations of the Minister of Internal Affairs and Administration

Regulations of the Minister of Maritime Economy and Inland Waterway Transport

Regulations of the Prime Minister