Definition of the target groups
Schools with a national minority language of instruction and schools where national minority languages are taught are a part of the education system in the Slovak Republic.
Education obtained at these schools is equal to education obtained at schools where the language of instruction is Slovak.
Certificates issued by schools with a national minority language of instruction are equal to the certificates issued by schools where the language of instruction is Slovak.
Children and pupils belonging to national minorities are guaranteed education and training in:
- schools and classes which provide education in the language of the national minority
- schools and classes where the language of the national minority is one of the subjects and the language of teaching in the rest of the subjects is the state language.
Education and training of children and pupils from national minorities schools and school facilities which provide teaching in a minority language or teaching of the language of minorities: Hungarian, Ukrainian, Ruthenian, Roma and German.
Children of foreigners and immigrants
Immigrant children are children of:
- persons, who are citizens of another state or persons without nationality, with residence permit in the Slovak Republic,
- asylum seekers in the territory of the Slovak Republic according to special regulation,
- Slovak citizens living abroad,
- applicants for asylum or additional protection under the Act on asylum,
- minors foreigners, who live at the territory of the Slovak Republic without guardian.
Children of foreigners with residence permit in the territory of the Slovak Republic, children of asylum seekers and Slovaks living abroad are provided with education and training, accommodation and meals at schools under the same condition as Slovak citizens. To overcome the language barrier, basic and extended courses of state language are provided for foreigners’ children.
Foreigners’ children are placed into appropriate grade by the headteacher after having indicated the level of their previous education and their knowledge of the language, at latest three months after the beginning of the asylum proceeding or at latest three months from the beginning of temporary shelter procedure. In case of insufficient state language proficiency, a child can be conditionally placed into the appropriate grade on the basis of age.
Pupils from socially disadvantaged environment
A child from socially disadvantaged environment is considered a person with special educational needs.
Pupils from socially disadvantaged environment live in a family:
- which receives benefit in material need and the family income reaches a maximum of the subsistence minimum,
- in which at least one parent or guardian belongs to the group of disadvantaged job applicants
- in which parents’ highest level of completed education is primary education or in which at least one parent has not completed primary education,
which has substandard housing and hygiene condition (e.g. the pupil does not have a place designated for learning, his/her own bed; there is no electric installation and so on).
Education of pupils from socially disadvantaged environment takes place in schools in regular classes with individual approach.
Specific support measures
Any child, if required due to their health disadvantage, can be also provided logopedic care – which is provided by a school logopedist either directly in school or in a centre of pedagogical and psychological counselling and prevention or in a centre of special pedagogical counselling.
A school logopedist performs diagnostic, therapeutic, prevention and counselling activities focusing on impaired communication abilities.
School logopedists keep records of their professional activities, which are a part of centres’ documentation
A School logopedist who is an employee of a centre specialising in counselling for children with impaired communication ability also provides professional-methodological help to
- specialist staff from other special pedagogical counselling centre,
- school special pedagogues,
- other expert employees of schools and school facilities including pedagogical staff in schools,
- general practitioners for children and youth,
- specialist doctor,
- clinical logopedists and
- expert employees of facilities providing social care to children.
Support measures for national minorities
Education and training process at schools with teaching language and with teaching of language of national minorities is provided in line with the approved pedagogical documentation.
Some primary schools provide teaching of minority language and literature as a subject (Ukrainian language and literature, Ruthenian language and literature, German language and literature and Roma language and literature).
Support measure for children of foreigners and immigrants
Measure in the area of education children of foreigners are divided into four main groups, as follow:
- leading to support foreigners children education, theirs integration into education process and familiarisation with majority society,
- in the area of further, life-long learning for adults, re-training,
- in the area of the achieved education recognition and professional practice and
- measure in the area of language learning and cultural orientation of adult foreigners.
For asylum seekers children in asylum facilities, for which school attendance is compulsory according to this Act, courses of the basic Slovak language are financially and professionally secured by the Ministry of Interior of the Slovak Republic. Concerning language education, the courses for foreigners children can by organised also by another legal or physical entity, after getting the accreditation according to special legal rules. For foreigners’ children with residence permit in the Slovak Republic, it is possible to establish other then public schools and to provide education and training also in another then state language for financial settlement. On the basis of the above mentioned, when providing financial resources for school and school facilities founders, which are listed in the network of schools and facilities of the ministry of education, the same rules apply for foreigners’ children in the process of provision of financial resources like with the children of the Slovak citizens.
Further education of pedagogical employees who teach foreigners’ children is provided by the Ministry of Education, Research, Development, and Youth of the Slovak Republic in professional, organisational, methodical and financial terms, with the exception of education of children in asylum facilities which is provided by the Ministry of Interior of the Slovak Republic.
Support measures for pupils from socially disadvantaged environment
Slovak Republic systematically supports access of pupils from socially disadvantaged environment (hereinafter only “SDE”) to education (financially and institutionally):
- free pre-school education from the age of 5;
- zero grade of primary school;
- specialized classes at the primary school – compensation and development programme;
- teacher’s assistant;
- allowance for pupils from SDE;
- food and school aids subsidies;
- social assistance benefit for the purpose of providing for child’s basic life needs, as long as the child fulfils the compulsory school attendance;
- support of schools – development projects, ESF;
- creation and standardisation of relevant diagnostic tools).
These measures are conceptual (The concept of up-bringing and education of Roma children and pupils including secondary and tertiary education (SK) – Decree No 206/2008 of the Government of the Slovak Republic) and they also deal with the causes of school unsuccessfulness of Roma children from SDE at primary schools, i.e. not achieving school ability.
The Ministry of Education, Research, Development, and Youth of the Slovak Republic can provide for school founders contribution for the improvement of education and training conditions for children from socially disadvantaged background.
A specialized class may be established at school with the consent of the school founder for students who in terms of education and training need a compensatory programme and for students who were educated at school with an educational programme for students with health disabilities.
Such class is established for at least four students but no more than eight students from one grade or several grades. If the number of students drops below four, the class is abolished. The headteacher places the students in such class based on a proposal from the class teacher, the educational counsellor after obtaining the opinion of the educational counselling and prevention centre and after obtaining the notified consent of the student’s legal guardian. The student is only included in specialized class for the necessary period of time.
Students from SDE are also educated in specialized classes if
- after completing the zero grade they not be successfully master the curriculum of the first grade;
- they do not master the curriculum of the first grade or who are under psychological examination found thet no preconditions to successfully mastered the curriculum of the first grade of the first grade; or
- they were educated at an primary school according to a programme for pupils with health disabilities but they did not show the disability.
National Council of the Slovak Republic, 1999. Act No. 184/1999 on the use of national minorities´ languages and on the change and supplement to some acts as amended by subsequent provision (Zákon č. 184/1999 Z.z. o používaní jazykov národnostných menšín v znení neskorších predpisov) (last accessed 03/06/2019).
National Council of the Slovak Republic, 2008. Act No. 245/2008 on education and training (Education Act) and on the change and supplement to some acts as amended by subsequent provisions (Zákon č. 245/2008 Z.z. o výchove a vzdelávaní (školský zákon) a o zmene a doplnení niektorých zákonov v znení neskorších predpisov) (last accessed 07/01/2020).
National Council of the Slovak Republic, 2003. Act No. 553/2003 on remuneration of some employees at the work performance in public interest and on the change and supplement to some acts as amended by subsequent provision (Zákon č. 553/2003 Z.z. o odmeňovaní niektorých zamestnancov pri výkone práce vo verejnom záujme a o zmene a doplnení niektorých zákonov v znení neskorších predpisov) (last accessed 07/01/2020).
Ministry of Education, Research, Development, and Youth of the Slovak Republic, 2008. Decree No. 326/2008 on the types and appropriations of certificates and other school forms, including the ways of registry and storage (Vyhláška č. 326/2008 o druhoch a náležitostiach vysvedčení a ostatných školských tlačív vrátane spôsobov ich evidencie a uloženia) (last accessed 03/06/2019).
Ministry of Education, Research, Development, and Youth of the Slovak Republic, 2008. Decree No. 320/2008 on primary school as amended by subsequent provision (Vyhláška č. 320/2008 o základnej škole v znení neskorších predpisov) (last accessed 03/06/2019).