The conditions of service are defined and negotiated in a similar process as the conditions of service of teachers at primary and secondary education level (see Chapter 9.2).
There is no national programme or initiative for anticipating the quantitative and qualitative needs of university academic staff as there is for teachers in primary and secondary education. Higher education institutions are themselves responsible for planning policies.
Entry to the profession
Higher education institutions are responsible for employing and appointing their academic staff. They also determine the types and number of posts needed. The recruitment is an open process and the vacant posts are advertised in newspapers, professional journals and relevant websites.
Since the reform of higher education legislation, teaching staff at universities are appointed in accordance with general employment legislation.
Teachers’ salaries are agreed nationally as part of collective agreements.
The salaries at universities and universities of applied sciences are based on demands levels, which are defined for each post. In addition the salary comprises a component based on personal work performance.
The actual annual gross salaries for teachers in higher education vary between 57 500 to 75 000 euro.
Working time and holidays
The annual working time of academic staff is 1 600 hours. This can comprise teaching, the preparations of teaching, research, administration etc. The number of hours devoted to the different activities is negotiated between the employer and the employee.
The annual leave of is determined according to the collective agreements. Generally the employees earn 2–3 days of holiday per working month, depending on years of service. The employees are entitled to a full leave if they have been in service a full year, from 1 April to 31 March.
No direct promotion opportunities exist. Open posts are generally advertised and those who desire a career move can apply for these.
Retirement and pensions
The general retirement age in higher education is 65 years. The pension replacement rate for those employed on or after 1 January 1993 is no more than 60% of the salary. For those employed before that date, the replacement rate is 60-66%.