For conditions for academic staff in higher education, the HEIs must adhere to the ordinary provisions of the Working Environment Act , Civil Service Act (employees at state HEIs), and special provisions pursuant to the Act relating to universities and university colleges. Some conditions of service also follows from various collective agreements applying to public or non-public HEI. Legislation gives researchers employee status and they have the same rights as all other employees, including social security, pension rights, maternity and paternity leave, full kindergarten coverage etc. Social security and pensions rights are regulated by law. Salaries and career prospects as well as additional social security rights are set out in collective agreements. PhD candidates have the same rights as all other employees, even though they have student status.
The main pillars of activities for academic staff in HEIs are education, research and dissemination (communication/knowledge transfer). As a general rule all researchers pursues both research, teaching and dissemination tasks in combined positions.