In higher education institutions rectors, principals or presidents and their deputies are responsible for the operations of universities and universities of applied sciences. Some universities are run by chancellors. Deans run and supervise the operations of their respective university faculties and chair the faculty council. University departments and different educational units or functions at universities of applied sciences are run by directors or heads.
Universities appoint rectors and vice-rectors from their professors. The qualification requirements are defined in the regulations of each university. Commonly the requirement for a professorship is a doctorate, scientific competences, experience in research-based teaching, international experience and relevant practical experience.
Rectors in universities of applied sciences must have a doctor’s or licentiate’s degree. In addition knowledge and experience in the field of the universities of applied sciences and administration is required. It is possible to appoint a person with a master’s degree if this person is considered particularly merited for the position.