Definition of the Target Group (s)
The laws at all levels of government and all levels of education, guarantee every child equal access, equal opportunity for participation in appropriate education and enjoyment of identical treatment without discrimination on any grounds, and no law contains discriminatory provisions. Groups that are considered most vulnerable due to various forms of exclusion from education and within it, are children with special needs (physical or mental disabilities), Roma children, children of other ethnic minorities, children of returnees, socially vulnerable children, children from rural areas, children and young drug addicts, children with learning and conduct difficulties, children and young people in conflict with the law, as well as specially gifted and talented children. However, children with multiple disabilities are perhaps the most vulnerable group. They are mainly referred to special purpose and social institutions. Only a small number of them attend mainstream schools. Excluded groups that have yet to be considered encompass abused children, children with chronic diseases, epilepsy, children with metabolic disorders, sleep and nutrition disorders. Given the events in the past in Bosnia and Herzegovina, a concept of inclusion of demobilized soldiers in the educational process is especially considered, in order to enable them to acquire additional training and retraining for inclusion in all forms of social activity. This initiative also includes persons who lost their jobs for various reasons in the process of transition, without being trained to meet the demands of the modern labour market. Groups that are considered most vulnerable due to various forms of exclusion from education and within it are children with special needs (physical or mental disabilities).
Specific Support Measures
Providing quality education for all pupils, both those with disabilities and for gifted pupils at all levels of education is one of the most pressing issues related to inclusion in BiH. Bosnia and Herzegovina creates the preconditions for the implementation of the inclusion process through adequate training and support for educators, teachers, lecturers and professors with assistance of experts (doctors, psychologists, therapists, speech therapists, etc.) for the purpose of development of individualized curricula. They also have assistance for the practical work, including the implementation of rehabilitation programmes and the provision of medical examinations and assistance from the above expert and assistants/volunteers, as well as provision of additional teaching aids adapted to work with pupils with disabilities and gifted pupils. It should be noted that children and young people with special needs are increasingly acquiring education in mainstream schools according to their individual abilities and skills. A special aspect is raising awareness of parents and children without developmental difficulties and briefing on the nature of various difficulties in development in order to remove any biases and misperceptions about people with disabilities. Proper information tends to avoid situations in which children with disabilities are inadequately treated by their peers. In addition, Bosnia and Herzegovina society, as an open society accepting and cherishing diversity, fosters education of children starting from early childhood on to accept, understand and respect the children and adults who are different from others.