The State power in the Slovak Republic has stemmed from the citizens who execute it through their elected representatives. The state power is divided into three independent elements: legislative, executive and judicial. They are mutually supplemented and controlled. The supreme authorities of the power and representatives of the political system of the Slovak Republic are the National Council of the Slovak Republic (Parliament), the Government of the Slovak Republic and the President of the Slovak Republic. The public administration is provided by both public administration and territorial administration.
The National Council of the Slovak Republic
The National Council of the Slovak Republic (SK) is the sole constituent and legislative body of the Slovak Republic. It is composed of 150 members, who are elected by citizens of the Slovak Republic by secret ballot in general, equal, and direct elections for a four-year period. The members are elected upon the system of proportional representation of the individual political parties according to election results. Active voting rights are held by every citizen of the Slovak Republic over the age of 18 years. Passive voting rights, i.e. the right to be elected as a member of the National Council of the Slovak Republic, are held by citizens of the Slovak Republic who have the right to vote, have reached the age of 21 years and have their permanent residence in the territory of the Slovak Republic. The office of Member of Parliament is incompatible with the office of president, constitutional judge, judge, prosecutor, member of the police force, member of the judicial guard and soldier in service. If a Member of Parliament is nominated to be a member of the government, his mandate during time of serving in the government does not expire, it is just not exercised.
The constitution authorises the National Council of the Slovak Republic to exercise important powers:
- to act on the constitution, constitutional legislation, laws,
- to decide on the proposal for the declaration of a referendum,
- to pronounce agreement with international political agreements international economic agreements of general character, as well as with international agreements, for whose fulfilment legislation is required, and this before the ratification of such agreements,
- to deliberate on the Manifesto
- to monitor the activities of the government and
- to take a vote of confidence of Government or its members,
- to approve the national budget,
- to audit its fulfilment and
- to approve the state closing account,
- to establish ministries and other state administration bodies by means of law).
- The National Council of the Slovak Republic elects and may appeal the Chair and Vice Chair of the Highest Supervisory Office, nominates judges to the Constitutional Court of the Slovak Republic, elects the Chair and Vice Chair of the Supreme Court of the Slovak Republic, voices no-confidence in the government, and proposes to the President of the Slovak Republic the appointment of the General Prosecutor of the Slovak Republic.
The National Council of the Slovak Republic is quorate if more than half of the majority of all its Members of Parliament are present. For adoption of the constitution, amendments to the constitution, constitutional laws, and for the declaration of war against another state, the agreement of at least three fifths of the majority of all Members of Parliament is required.
The Government of the Slovak Republic
The Government of the Slovak Republic is the supreme body of executive power. The Government consists of the prime minister, deputy prime ministers and ministers. The government, i.e. the prime minister, deputy prime ministers and ministers, are nominated and appealed by the President, namely, according to parliamentary elections so that the President nominates those politicians from the newly-elected government. Within 30 days after its establishment , the Government is obliged to appear before the National Council to present its Manifesto and to request the expresion of its confidence. Upon the approval of the Manifesto, the government begins to fulfil its programme.
Any citizen of the Slovak Republic who is eligible for the National Council of the Slovak Republic may be nominated for prime minister, deputy prime minister and minister. The execution of the post of Government member is incompatible with execution of a mandate of a Member of Parliament or a judge. Neither can he exercise another gainful employment, profession or entrepreneurial activity.
The government is quorate if a majority of members are present. The government decides in body. Its decisions are adopted by resolution. In order to accept the resolution of the government, approval by more than half of the majority of all Parliament members is required.
The government decides on bills, government resolutions, government programme, international agreements, fundamental questions of domestic and international policy, proposal for the state budget and state closing account, submission of proposals of the National Council of the Slovak Republic on granting of amnesty in matters of misdemeanour, on requesting for vote of confidence, etc.
The President of the Slovak Republic
The State is headed by the President. The President is elected for a term of five years by secret ballot by citizens of the Slovak Republic. Candidates for President may be nominated by members of Parliament (at least 15 members) or by citizens on the basis of a petition (at least 15 thousand citizens). The candidate who obtains more than half of the valid votes of eligible voters may be elected as a President. If this does not occur, within 14 days a second round of elections takes place.Those two candidates progress to the second ballot who get the highest number of the valid votes. The President may be recalled before the end of his term of office by the electoral vote.
The President represents the Slovak Republic and with his decisions ensures regular functioning of the constitutional bodies. The President administers his office according to his best conscience and conviction and is not bound by any commands.
- negotiates and ratifies international treaties,
- receives and delegates envoys,
- signs laws, may return a law to the Parliament of the Slovak Republic with comments, namely, within 15 days from the day of the delivery of the accredited law for signing,
- bestows honours, if this duty is not delegated to another body,
- grants amnesty and pardon,
- declares referenda, s
- ubmits reports on the state of the Slovak Republic and other fundamental questions to the Parliament of the Slovak Republic, and carries out other duties delegated to him by the constitution.
- Has the authority to nominate and appeal the prime minister and other members of the Government of the Slovak Republic, general prosecutor, heads of central bodies and higher state administrators in cases specified by law,
- to nominate professors and rectors of universities, to nominate and override generals, to nominate the Chair, Vice Chair and judges of the Constitutional Court of the Slovak Republic are all among the responsibilities of the President.
- The President is the supreme commander of the armed forces.
The public administration
The public administration in the Slovak Republic is carried out by both the State administration and territorial administration.
The State administration is executed by ministries and central authorities which have lower levels of administration. The local bodies of state administration in the field of general internal administration, entrepreneurship, civil defence and state management under the state of crisis outside the period of war and the state of war are represented by the regional and district authorities.
The territorial self-governance is executed by municipalities and higher territorial units. The municipality and higher territorial unit are independent territorial self-governing and administration units of the Slovak Republic associating the persons who have permanent residence on their territory, they are legal entities who under the conditions set by law independently manage their property and their finances; it is possible to set them duties by law only; they have their own bodies and the execution of designated tasks of local state administration may be delegated to them by law.
The authorities of municipality are represented by municipal council and mayor, while the authorities of higher territorial unit are represented by the council of the higher territorial unit and the chair of the higher territorial unit. The municipal council and the council of higher territorial unit are made up of deputies. The deputies of the councils as well as mayors of municipalities and chairs of higher territorial units are elected by the inhabitants who have permanent residence at the territory of the municipality, or higher territorial unit, namely, on the basis of general, equal and direct suffrage by secret ballot for a 4-year period.
As set by law, the higher territorial units are self-governing regions. Their territorial district is identical to territorial district of the regions.