In public universities, there are civil servants and staff employed on a contractual basis which includes several categories (see 'Entry to the Profession' in Subchapter 9.5).
Regarding civil servants, the initial education of university teaching staff which qualifies them to teach corresponds, in general, to the official Doctoral degree.
For detailed information on the institutions providing doctoral studies, access, duration and skills acquired after completion of these studies, see the article on Subchapter 7.5 Third cycle (PhD) programmes.
According to the University Higher Education Teaching Career Statute (ECDU), those with a Doctorate degree (3rd cycle) gain a qualification for teaching in higher education. Nevertheless, other highly qualified individuals can also perform teaching duties.
In accordance with the Polytechnic Higher Education Teaching Career Statute (ECPDESP), access to teaching in polytechnic higher education is possible if the candidate has the equivalent of a doctoral degree or the title of specialist (for the principal coordinating professor category, the title of specialist is required, in addition to a doctoral degree).
Those with the degree of Licenciado or an equivalent degree can also teach in higher education as assistents.
There is no initial education for higher education teachers, although requirements are set for each category.
The degree required for teaching in higher education is achieved by attending a higher education course at a higher education institution, except the Doctoral degree, which is awarded only in universities or university institutes.
For additional information, see Subchapter 7.5 Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes.