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EACEA National Policies Platform:Eurydice
Teaching and learning in single-structure education

Bosnia and Herzegovina

5.Single-structure primary and lower secondary education

5.2Teaching and learning in single-structure education

Last update: 27 November 2023


Curriculum, Subjects, Number of Hours

The curriculum that is operational for the education process is adopted by the Minister on the proposal of the Pedagogical Institute, in accordance with the Common Core Curriculum under Articles 42 and 43 of the Framework Law on Primary and Secondary Education in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Official Gazette of Bosnia and Herzegovina, No. 18/03), (hereinafter: the Framework Law). Curriculum, defines the mandatory curricular and extracurricular activities. The curriculum sets out the subjects and their distribution by grade, as well as annual and weekly number of hours of instruction and other forms of educational work.

Curriculum sets out:

a) content for each compulsory and elective subjects,

b) the purpose, objectives and outcomes of teaching and other forms of educational work and

c) instructions for the realization of the curriculum.

Elective subjects are mandatory for all students who opt for them. The school organizes free activities of pupils by engaging them in various forms of work based on voluntary choice of pupils. The weekly number of classes per grade in the first, second and third triad is determined by the curriculum, and daily load of classes is determined by a timetable. The weekly and daily number of hours includes hours for additional and remedial classes and curricular and extracurricular activities. The school works in a five-day working week, and a teaching lesson lasts 45 minutes. For pupils of the first triad learning activities are organized in total of three hours a day for first grade pupils and in total of four hours a day for second and third grade pupils.

Teaching Methods and Materials

Educational work in primary school has regular and elective subjects, and other forms of direct educational work. Therefore, the teachers should be trained to work in these forms of educational work and in all aspects of education - frontal, group and individualized work with pupils, which includes:

- Adapting educational and teaching forms, methods and tools to the needs and abilities of pupils, in order to ensure the educational success of each individual

- Selection and application of educational forms, methods and tools that will work on the development of all areas of the pupil’s personality

- Planning and preparation of school and teaching work in line with pupils’ capabilities, preparing different contents, different organisation and pace of instruction

- Acceptance of different learning styles of pupils, as well as developmental differences between boys and girls and between individual pupils in general

- Introduction of appropriate forms and methods of teaching and learning that will enable active, independent learning and practical application of knowledge

- Use of different sources of relevant knowledge and teaching resources that encourage participation, observation, self study, experimentation, discovery, reasoning, curiosity and learning how to learn

- Interest and motivation of pupils to learn and give them a sense of security and mutual respect - Identification and monitoring of gifted pupils or pupils with learning and behaviour disabilities

- Assist pupils with disabilities and sensitize other children and pupils for their needs, providing assistance and cooperation.

In pursuit of educational achievement, teachers are given complete freedom and proposed open methodological and didactic systems allow them a choice of methods, forms and conditions for the achievement of programme objectives. The following work methods, forms and modes have full confirmation, such as: research teaching, teaching based on the pupils’ experience, project teaching, multimedia teaching, individualized approach to pupils, interdisciplinary approach, i.e. linking programmes according to the principles of inter-connectedness, problem-based learning, learning in pairs, learning in groups and the like.

Accordingly, teachers, professional associates and principals have the right and obligation of continuing professional training and further training through programmes approved by the Ministry responsible for education. Manner and procedure for professional training of teachers, professional associates and principals is prescribed by the Minister. Each annual curriculum establishes, among other things, a plan for professional training of employees.