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Glossary

Czechia

16.Glossary

Last update: 16 May 2024
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Absolutorium

Graduate Examination

1. A type of examination passed at the end of tertiary professional education (ISCED 655) consisting of a theoretical examination in special subjects, of an examination in one foreign language, and defence of a graduate thesis.

2. Absolutorium v konzervatoři – graduate examination at the conservatoire. A comprehensive professional examination finalising the tertiary professional education at a conservatoire (ISCED 554) consisting of a theoretical examination composed of vocational subjects specified by the Framework Education Programme, an examination in a foreign language, a graduate thesis and its defence, and a graduate performance in one or two principal branches, or an examination in artistic and pedagogical training if so stipulated by the Framework Education Programme. The graduate examination in dance does not include an examination in a foreign language.

Asistent

Assistant

According to the Higher Education Act, an academic rank of a teacher at a higher education institution (vysoká škola). The qualification requirements and responsibilities are set by each higher education institution and recorded in their internal regulations. He/she is usually expected to have a Master’s degree. An academic’s career usually starts with this category.

Asistent pedagoga

Teacher's Assistant

A member of education staff, who provides assistance to pupils in the process of adaptation to the school environment, assistance to the members of education staff of the school in their educational activities and assistance in communication with pupils.

Děkan

Dean

The top representative of the faculty who decides on its issues. He/she is promoted to this position by the higher education institution's (vysoká škola) head on the basis of a proposal by the Academic Senate for a three-year term.

Dětská skupina

Children's Group

A legal form of childcare service providing regular care for a child outside his or her home in a group of children. It is intended for children from 6 months of age until the commencement of compulsory schooling (6/7 years). However, the attendance of children above 5 years of age is rare as all children in the last year before compulsory schooling have to fulfil the compulsory pre-primary education. Children’s groups can be established by employers for their employees and by various non-profit entities.

Dětský domov

Children’s Home

An institution for the provision of institutional care for children and youths; it ensures social, material and educational care of those who from serious reasons cannot be brought up within the family and cannot be adopted or placed in another form of surrogated family care. The institution usually cares for children from 3 to 18 years and can also be of a family type. Dětský domov se školou is an institution for the provision of institutional care for children and youths with a school included. It is intended for pupils 6-15 who have serious behavioural difficulties or intellectual disorders, and for children in mandatory protective care.

Diagnostický ústav

Diagnostic Institute

A school facility for institutional education and protective care. It is focused on the support of education, learning, and the career decisions of children, pupils and students. The services are provided to pupils, their legal guardians, schools and school facilities.

Diplomovaný specialista

Diploma Specialist

A title of a graduate who successfully completed a tertiary professional school (vyšší odborná škola) or a conservatoire. The study is finished by a graduate examination (absolutorium) after 3 years at the tertiary professional school, or after the relevant number of years at the conservatoire.

Docent

Associate Professor

A member of academic staff whose position is acquired through habilitation (the procedure for the appointment of a docent) and he/she is appointed by a rector on the basis of a recommendation by the faculty Scientific Council.

Domov mládeže

School Lodging and Boarding Facility

A school lodging and boarding facility providing care (accommodation, meals and leisure time activities) for pupils of upper secondary schools (střední škola) and students of tertiary professional schools (vyšší odborná škola), living at a distance from the school they attend.

Dvojjazyčné gymnázium

Bilingual General Secondary School

An educational field that is implemented at some six-year general secondary schools that is characterised by two languages of instruction. It is subject to the Framework Education Programme for Bilingual Secondary General School and covers the last two years of basic education as well as upper secondary education. An intensive language learning takes place in the first two years which enables students to study in both Czech and the given foreign language in the subsequent four years. Education in a foreign language leads to the competence level C1 of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages.

Gymnázium

Upper Secondary General School

a) A field of study providing general secondary education with a Maturita examination (střední vzdělání s maturitní zkouškou) – ISCED 344. A Maturita examination report (vysvědčení o maturitní zkoušce) entitles pupils to seek admission to tertiary education. The studies may last four years (only upper secondary level), or six or eight years (including lower and upper secondary education).

b) A term for a school providing a field of the same name.

Internát

School Lodging and Boarding Facility

A school lodging and boarding facility providing accommodation, education, care and meals for children and pupils of schools, set up especially for persons with disability.

Jazyková škola

Language School

Full term: jazyková škola s právem státní jazykové zkoušky (language school authorised to organise state language examinations). A school providing language education (further education). The schools are subject to the Education Act. These schools are also allowed to provide one-year post-secondary foreign language courses (ISCED 454) following a Maturita examination.

Jesle

Crèche

A former child health facility established by the municipality taking care of the all-around development of children, usually up to 3 years of age. The facility was under the responsibility of the Ministry of Health, it was not part of the education system. The operation of crèches under the Act on Public Health Care was discontinued at the end of 2013. However, some facilities are still running under the Act on Providing Care of Children in a Children´s Group. At present, an amendment to this Act is in preparation renaming the children´s groups (dětské skupiny) to crèches.

Konzervatoř

Conservatoire

A type of school which provides art education at upper secondary and tertiary level (six-year programme) or from lower secondary to tertiary level (eight-year programme). Graduates achieve the level of tertiary professional education in a conservatoire (vyšší odborné vzdělání v konzervatoři) (ISCED 554) and/or upper secondary education with the Maturita examination (střední vzdělání s maturitní zkouškou) (ISCED 354).

Kvestor

Bursar

A senior higher education institution (vysoká škola) employee who has the administrative responsibility and no teaching obligations.

Lektor

Lecturer

According to the Higher Education Act, an academic rank of a teacher at a higher education institution (vysoká škola). Qualification requirements and responsibilities are set by each higher education institution and recorded in their internal regulations. He/she is usually expected to have a Bachelor’s or Master’s degree and to mainly ensure the instruction of students.

Lyceum

Lyceum

A common term for the group of educational fields: Technical Lyceum, Economics Lyceum, Pedagogical Lyceum, Health Care Lyceum, Science Lyceum, Combined Lyceum, Military Lyceum. These educational fields provide general upper secondary education with vocational component and are completed with a Maturita examination (maturitní zkouška) – ISCED 344. They prepare primarily to tertiary education in given specialisation.

Málotřídní škola

The common term for a basic school (základní škola) in which it is possible to teach pupils of several grades together in one class. At the primary level depending on local condition, the school can have from one to four classes. It is not possible to merge several grades together at the lower secondary level. The schools usually only include the primary level, but they can also have both levels.

Mateřská škola

Nursery School

A school ensuring pre-primary education, usually for children from two to six years of age. The last year of pre-primary education is compulsory. Nursery schools are part of the education system. Their organising body is usually a municipality, private organising body or church.

Maturitní zkouška

Maturita Examination

An examination completing study in educational programmes where the pupil acquires secondary education completed by a Maturita examination (střední vzdělání s maturitní zkouškou) – ISCED 344 or 354. From 2010/2011, the examination has included standardised (state) and profile (school) parts of the examination. It is a prerequisite for entry to higher and tertiary professional education.

Metodik prevence v pedagogicko-psychologické poradně

Prevention Specialists in Pedagogical and Psychological Counselling Centre

A member of specialist team of pedagogical and psychological counselling centre (pedagogicko-psychologická poradna).

Nástavbové studium

Follow-up Study

A type of education organised by upper secondary schools (střední školy), intended for applicants who have completed the three-year courses of upper secondary education with VET certificate (střední vzdělání s výučním listem – ISCED 353) and want to supplement their secondary education with a Maturita examination. The continuity of the fields with VET certificate and the follow-up fields of study has been set by a Government regulation. The follow up study lasts 2 years and is completed with the Maturita examination (maturitní zkouška) – ISCED 354.

Odborné učiliště

Secondary vocational school

Designation of a sub-type of upper secondary school. Although the present Education Act differentiates secondary education based on the qualification achieved, not on the type of school providing the education, it also mentions the basic sub-types of upper secondary schools. These sub-types are not defined, but schools can (but do not have to) choose to use them in their names. The Decree on Secondary Education and Education in Conservatoires then mentions other sub-types of upper secondary schools according to their focus, but also only for the purpose of designation. The names of schools are not bound to concrete fields of education. However, the name of such school may indicate its specialisation. Odborné učiliště is one of these designations referring usually to two or three-year vocational courses.

Odborný asistent

Senior Assistant

A member of the academic staff with varying levels of research experience. The requirements are set by the higher education institutions (vysoké školy). He/she is usually expected to have the title Ph.D. His/her teaching obligation is usually greater than that of the associated professor (docent) or professor (profesor). His/her main concern is tutorials and seminars.

Pečující osoba

Chilcare worker

A person who provides childcare in children's groups (dětské skupiny).

Pedagog volného času

Teacher Responsible for Leisure Activities

A member of education staff working in facilities for developing personal interests (in leisure centres – středisko volného času).

Pedagog v zařízení pro další vzdělávání pedagogických pracovníků

Teacher at a Facility for Continuing Professional Development of Education Staff

A member of education staff responsible for continuing professional development (CPD) of education staff in a facility for CPD of educational staff (zařízení pro další vzdělávání pedagogických pracovníků).

Pedagogicko-psychologická poradna

Pedagogical and Psychological Counselling Centre

Type of school guidance and counselling facility offering professional pedagogical psychological and special pedagogical service to children and pupils aged from 3 to 19. Individual or group work of the experts with pupils, their legal guardians and teachers includes diagnostic, interventional, methodical and information activities. It is provided on a non-residential basis at the centre premises and through visits of counsellors to schools and school facilities.

Praktická škola

Practical School

A common term for two educational fields: One-Year Practical School (Praktická škola jednoletá), Two-Year Practical School (Praktická škola dvouletá). These educational fields provide secondary education to pupils with severe mental disability. The educational programme lasts 1 or 2 years, school leavers acquire the level of secondary education (střední vzdělání) – ISCED 253.

Profesor

Professor

A member of the academic staff, distinguished and respected scientific or artistic personality in his/her field appointed by the President of the Republic on the recommendation of the higher education institution’s scientific council, submitted through the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports.

Přípravná třída

Preparatory Class of a Basic School

A possible form of compulsory pre-primary education established at some basic schools for children in the last pre-school year (preferentially for children with the postponement of compulsory school attendance) where there is a presumption that their inclusion into the preparatory class (ISCED 020) may balance out their development. This form of education is free of charge at public and state schools and is regulated by the Education Act and the Decree on Basic Education.

Psycholog

Psychologist

According to the Education Act, a member of a specialist team of school guidance and counselling facilities (školská poradenská zařízení) and centre of educational care. Within these institutions, psychologists are considered as education staff performing a direct pedagogical-psychological activity. There are school psychologists working at some schools. Whether the school employs such staff is the school head's decision. Psychologists working at schools and school facilities are included within the education staff.

Speciálně pedagogické centrum

Special Educational Centre

A type of school guidance and counselling facility provides guidance services to pupils with disabilities, pupils with a health disadvantage integrated into schools and school facilities, pupils with these difficulties in schools, classes, sections or study groups with specially modified educational programmes, pupils with disabilities in special basic schools (základní škola speciální) and to children with severe mental disability.

Speciální pedagog

Special Educational Needs Specialist

A member of the team at pedagogical and psychological counselling centre (pedagogicko-psychologická poradna) or special pedagogical centre (speciálně pedagogické centrum). Education staff of schools and schools facilities also include the SEN specialists. The decision on whether the school SEN specialists will work at school is up to a school head.

Státní rigorózní zkouška

examen rigorosum

1. The final examination of Master's studies in medicine, veterinary medicine and hygiene and dentistry studies, lasting 5–6 years. The graduates are awarded titles MUDr. and MVDr. and MDDr.

Post-master’s examen rigorosum

2. A state examination (oral and defence of thesis) which a graduate of Master's studies in law, humanities, social sciences, natural sciences can pass. After having passed the exam the titles JUDr., PhDr., RNDr., PharmDr., ThLic. and ThDr. are awarded.

Středisko praktického vyučování

Centre of Practical Education

A school special purpose facility which provides practical training for pupils of upper secondary schools (střední školy) according to the educational documents of particular schools.

Středisko volného času

Leisure Time Centre

Type of school facility with various activities for children and youths of all ages. The centres are divided into children and youth houses (domy dětí a mládeže) with a wide variety of activities in many areas, and a special activity centre (stanice zájmových činností), focusing on specific areas of interest. They can offer services for fees. The centres can prepare courses, participate in organising various competitions, camps, clubs, educational programmes for schools etc.

Středisko výchovné péče

Centre for Behavioural Development

A school facility, which provides general preventive educational care for the youths at risk or juveniles with behavioural difficulties (e.g. minors from 3 to 18, or possibly adults of 19) in cases where institutional or protective care is not justified. In addition to their basic non-residential activity, some of them provide clients with residential care and some centres have crisis beds.

Střední škola

Upper Secondary School

A type of school which provides its pupils with the upper secondary education, in case of general courses (gymnázium) also lower secondary education.

Střední vzdělání

(Upper) Secondary Education

A level of education (ISCED 253/353) attained by the successful completion of an educational programme of upper secondary school (střední škola) lasting 1 or 2 years in a daily form of attendance. It is provided by certain vocational fields preparing for given professions. It is completed by the VET final examination (závěrečná zkouška), the graduates obtain the report on the VET final examination (vysvědčení o závěrečné zkoušce). This level of education does not allow graduates to enter a tertiary level of education.

Střední vzdělání s maturitní zkouškou

Upper Secondary Education Completed with the Maturita Examination

A level of education (ISCED 344/354)  attained by the successful completion of general four-, six- or eight-year educational programmes (gymnázium), four-year vocational/technical secondary educational programme, the 2-year follow-up study (nástavbové studium) or 1-2-year shortened study. Pupils acquire this educational level also after at least four years study of a six-year programme at the conservatoire or eight years of study of an eight-year programme at the conservatoire. After passing the Maturita examination, the graduates obtain the Maturita examination report (vysvědčení o maturitní zkoušce) which enables the graduates to enter the tertiary level of education.

Střední vzdělání s výučním listem

Upper Secondary Education completed with the VET Certificate

A level of education (ISCED 353) attained by the successful completion of an educational programme lasting 2 or 3 years in a daily form of attendance or educational programme of shortened study . Pupils are qualified for performing particular professions. The programmes are completed by the VET final examination (závěrečná zkouška), the graduates obtain a report on the VET final examination (vysvědčení o závěrečné zkoušce) and the VET certificate (výuční list). This level of education does not allow graduates to enter the tertiary level of education.

Škola v přírodě

School in the Countryside

A school facility which enables the short stay of children from nursery schools and pupils who fulfil the compulsory school attendance in the countryside without interrupting education and thus to compensate for the negative influence of the environment.

Školní družina

After-School Centre

A school facility providing special interest education mostly for pupils at the first stage of a basic school (ISCED 1). It operates at most schools.

Školní jídelna

School Canteen

A school facility for school catering providing food for children, pupils and students while at school or a school facility

Školní klub

School Club

A school facility providing special interest education for pupils at the lower secondary stage of basic schools (ISCED 2). It operates at most school.

Školní metodik prevence

School Prevention Specialist

A qualified teacher with special training and a minimum of 2 years previous teaching experience. His/her teaching duty is reduced. His/her work includes e.g. activities aimed at the prevention of truancy, addiction, violence, vandalism, molestation, sect abuse, pre-criminal and criminal behaviour, manifestation of self-destructive behaviour etc. These specialists generally operate at all basic, upper secondary and tertiary professional schools.

Školní poradenské pracoviště

School Guidance and Counselling Workplace

A common term for guidance and counselling services provided by individual schools by a team of teachers and specialists. At most schools the guidance is ensured only by teachers with special training – school counsellor (výchovný poradce) and school prevention specialists (školní metodik prevence). At some schools the team also includes a school psychologist (psycholog) and special educational needs specialists (speciální pedagog).

Školská rada

School Council

A body enabling statutory representatives of minor pupils, pupils and students of legal age, pedagogical staff, the founder, and other persons to participate in the management of basic, upper secondary and tertiary professional schools (základní školy, střední školy, vyšší odborné školy). It is established by a founder who at the same time specifies the number of its members and issues rules for its election. The founder appoints one third of the members; one third is elected by the statutory representatives of minor pupils along with the other pupils and students, and one third is elected by the pedagogical staff of the relevant school. The school head cannot be a member of the School Council.

Školské poradenské zařízení

School Guidance and Counselling Facility

A school facility providing information and diagnostic, guidance and methodological services for children, pupils, and students and their statutory representatives, and for schools and school facilities, providing pedagogical and specialised pedagogical and psychological services and preventative educational care, and assisting in selecting suitable future education and training. There are two types of facilities: special educational centre (speciálně pedagogické centrum) and pedagogical and psychological counselling centre (pedagogicko-psychologická poradna).

Školské účelové zařízení

School Facility Established for Special Purposes

School facilities assisting schools and other school facilities in their activities. They include the following facilities: service centre for schools (středisko služeb školám), school farming facility (školní hospodářství), centre for vocational training (středisko praktického vyučování), school library (školní knihovna) and swimming school (plavecká škola).

Školské zařízení

School Facility

A facility providing services and education supplementing and supporting education at schools or relating directly to it, or providing institutional and protective education or preventive educational care (“school services”). The execution of activities carried out at school facilities is conditional upon their inclusion in the School Registry. The types of facilities are as follows: school facilities for continuing professional development of education staff (zařízení pro další vzdělávání pedagogických pracovníků), school guidance and counselling facilities (školská poradenská zařízení), school educational and boarding facilities (školská výchovná a ubytovací zařízení), school facilities for personal interests education (školská zařízení pro zájmové vzdělávání), school canteens (zařízení školního stravování / školní jídelna), school facilities for special purposes (školská účelová zařízení) and school facilities for providing institutional education or protective education and preventative educational care (školská zařízení pro výkon ústavní výchovy, ochranné výchovy a pro preventivně výchovnou péči).

Trenér

Coach

According to the Education Act, a member of the education staff who governs the sports training of pupils in general secondary fields of study.

Víceleté gymnázium

Multi-year General Secondary School

A common term for a school providing general lower and upper secondary education within the field of study Gymnázium. Pupils can be admitted to an eight-year programme after the fifth year or to a six-year programme after the seventh year of basic education.

Vychovatel

Childcare Educational Worker

According to the Education Act,  a member of the education staff who performs educational tasks at school facilities: after-school centre (školní družina), school club (školní klub), school lodging and boarding facilities (domov mládeže and internát), school facilities for institutional education or protective education (e.g. children's home – dětský domov) or school facility for preventive educational care (e.g. the centre of educational care – středisko výchovné péče) and who has acquired the required educational qualifications.

Výchovný poradce

School Counsellor

A member of the education staff at any basic and upper secondary school providing guidance and counselling. He/she is a qualified teacher with special training, their teaching duty is reduced.

Výchovný ústav

Preventive Care Institute (Detention Home)

An educational facility for youths from 15 to 18 with serious behavioural difficulties who were ordered institutional or protective education. Towards children it carries out mainly educational and social tasks.

Vysoká škola

Higher Education Institution

It is the general term for a higher education institution. There are two types – universities, providing Bachelor's, Master's as well as Doctoral study programmes (ISCED 6, 7 and 8), and non-university institutions, providing mainly Bachelor’s programmes. There are public (established by the law), state and private higher education institutions. They achieve their aim by closely linking teaching with scholarly, academic, research, developmental, innovative, artistic or other creative activities.

Vyšší odborná škola

Tertiary Professional School

Schools providing tertiary professional education (ISCED 655). They are public (established by Regions), private or denominational. The study is finished by the graduate examination (absolutorium). Tertiary professional school graduates are awarded a degree of a Diploma Specialist (diplomovaný specialista) written after his/her name and abbreviated as DiS.

Vyšší odborné vzdělání

1. Tertiary professional education is a level of education (ISCED 655) achieved after the successful graduation at a tertiary professional school (vyšší odborná škola). The length of tertiary professional education in the daily form of attendance is three years including vocational training; with regard to medical branches, it lasts up to three and half years and is finished with the graduation examination (absolutorium).

2. Tertiary professional education at conservatoire (ISCED 554). An art education which lasts either six years in a daily form of attendance (first four years correspond to ISCED level 3) or eight years (first six years correspond to ISCED level 2 and 3).

Výuční list

VET Certificate

A certificate obtained on completion of the vocational upper secondary education with a VET certificate (střední vzdělání s výučním listem) in 2- and 3-year programmes. It is gained after passing the VET final examination (zavěrečná zkouška) together with the report on the VET final examination (vysvědčení o závěrečné zkoušce). The VET certificate includes a clause on graduation from practical education.

Základní škola

Basic School

A school where a pupil fulfils his/her compulsory school attendance. It is divided into two stages, first (1-5 grades) corresponding to the primary level (ISCED 100), and second stage (6-9 grades) corresponding to the lower secondary level (ISCED 244). On completion of school, pupils acquire a level of basic education. The organising body of public schools is usually a municipality.

Základní škola praktická

Practical Basic School

A former type of basic school (základní škola) providing compulsory education to pupils with mild intellectual disabilities. A specific field of study (“practical basic school”) and related framework education programme was developed for these pupils. From 2016, the specific type of school as well as field of study and framework education programme have been abolished. Nevertheless, schools providing education for these pupils can still operate. The pupils are educated there within the standard field of study (“Basic school”) according to the Framework Education Programme for Basic Education, where separate outcomes are defined for them. 

Základní škola speciální

Special Basic School

A basic school (základní škola) targeted at pupils with moderate and severe mental disabilities, and concomitant multiple disabilities. Education in a special basic school has ten grades. School leavers from this type of school acquire the level “basics of education” (základy vzdělání), but not "basic education" (základní vzdělání) as the leavers from mainstream basic schools receive. However, both are classified as ISCED level 244.

Základní umělecká škola

Basic Art School

A school providing basic education in various art fields and preparing pupils for studying courses of artistic nature at upper secondary schools and conservatoires. Basic Art Schools can provide adult education. Compared with the basic school (základní školy), they do not provide a defined level of education.

Základní vzdělání

Basic Education

A level of education (ISCED 244) acquired by a pupil through the successful completion of the educational programme of basic education at a basic school (základní škola), at the lower secondary level of six- or eight-year general secondary school (gymnázium), or in the corresponding level of the eight-year educational programme at a conservatoire. The level of basic education can also be acquired after completing compulsory school education through successfully completing the course for acquiring basic education organised at basic schools or upper secondary schools (střední školy).

Základy vzdělání

Basics of Education

A level of education acquired by a pupil through the completion of the educational programme of basic education at a special basic school (základní škola speciální) targeted at pupils with moderate and severe mental disabilities, and concomitant multiple disabilities. It is classified as ISCED level 244 similarly as the level "basic education" (základní vzdělání).

Zařízení pro další vzdělávání pedagogických pracovníků

Facility for Continuing Professional Development of Education Staff

A school facility providing in-service training, advisory services in methodical issues and management of schools and school facilities.

Zařízení pro péči o děti do 3 let

Childcare Facility for Children under 3 Years of Age

A shortened term for facility established within the trade (profession) Daily care for children under 3 years of age. The facilities are primarily intended for private natural persons or legal entities; however, some public subjects have it registered as well. They fall under the responsibility of the Ministry of Industry and Trade and operate under the Trade Licensing Act and general legal regulations.

Závěrečná zkouška

VET Final Examination

An examination in the fields of study providing secondary education (střední vzdělání, ISCED 253/353) and secondary education with a VET certificate (střední vzdělání s výučním listem, ISCED 353). It consists of a practical and theoretical examination from vocational subjects in the case of the secondary education. In courses for attaining a VET certificate, it consists of a written and oral examination as well as a practical examination and the schools are obliged to use standardised assignments for the VET final examinations and related documentation (from the school year 2014/15).

Zkrácené studium

Shortened Study

An upper secondary education provided by upper secondary schools (střední školy) intended for school leavers who want to extend their upper secondary qualification. The shortened study courses last 1 or 2 years. Two types of study are available:

a) shortened study courses aimed at acquiring secondary education completed with a VET certificate (zkrácené studium s výučním listem – ISCED 353) intended for school leavers who completed their previous study with a Maturita examination (ISCED 344 or 354) or acquired a VET certificate in other field of study (ISCED 353); 

b) shortened study courses aimed at acquiring secondary education with a Maturita examination (zkrácené studium s maturitní zkouškou – ISCED 354) organised for school leavers who have already completed their previous study with a Maturita examination (ISCED 344 or 354).