There is a unified structure for teaching positions in all higher education, laid down in regulations. There are identical formal requirements to all academic staff with the same professional title, whether they are at a university, a university college, or a private university college. The proportions and numbers of the various categories of staff still vary between the main types of institutions, and are likely to continue to do so, because of differences in size, study programmes and academic profile between the various institutions.
To qualify for work as professor or associate professor, all appointees are required to hold doctoral degrees. In addition, professors must also meet the criteria for appointment to teaching and research posts, that is to have an academic level conforming to established international or national standards.
The objective of a research fellowship is completion of research training to the level of a doctoral degree, whereas the objective of a research fellowship in the arts within the Programme for Research Fellowships in the Arts is an academic qualification at the level of associate professor.
Link to the Regulation concerning appointment and promotion of teaching and research posts in Norwegian: http://www.lovdata.no/for/sf/kd/xd-20060209-0129.html, and the same in English but only in a slightly older version than of the regulation in Norwegian, not comprising some of the smaller changes made: http://www.regjeringen.no/upload/KD/Vedlegg/UH/forskrifter/Regulation_concerning_appointment_promotion_teaching_research_posts.pdf
Regulations concerning terms and conditions of employment for the posts of postdoktor (post-doctoral research fellow), stipendiat (research fellow), vitenskapelig assistent (research assistant) and spesialistkandidat (resident) are available here: http://www.uhr.no/documents/Regulations_Post_doctoral_and_research_fellow.pdf The Act relating to universities and university colleges (only in Norwegian): [http://lovdata.no/all/hl-20050401-015.html http://lovdata.no/all/hl-20050401-015.html