This chapter provides a thematic and chronological overview of the national reforms and policy developments since 2021.
The introduction of this chapter describes the overall education strategy and the key objectives across the whole education system. It also looks at how the education reform process is organised and who are the main actors in the decision-making process.
The section on ongoing reforms and policy developments groups reforms in the following broad thematic areas that largely correspond to education levels:
- Early childhood education and care
- School education
- VET and Adult Learning
- Higher education
- Transversal skills and Employability.
Inside each thematic area, reforms are organised chronologically. The most recent reforms are described first.
Overall national education strategy and key objectives
The programme of the current three-party coalition government, in power since December 2013, sets out the main orientations and objectives of education policy. The second legislature's 2018-2023 coalition agreement defining the government policy was signed on 3 December 2018 by the representatives of the parties involved: democratic (DP), socialist (LSAP) and 'the Greens' (déi gréng).
In the fields of Education, Children and Youth, policy takes a holistic approach, meaning that the development of children and youth has to be understood in its entirety. The key objective of the educational strategy is to ensure that all children and young people have equal access to a consistent, comprehensive and quality educational and childcare environment.
State schools shall respond to the learner population's growing diversity. Educational provision and schooling offer must fit the students' actual needs. One major objective of governmental action is to promote equal opportunities for all citizens.
The government's educational policy is guided by five main principles:
- Continuous development to ensure the quality of the reforms undertaken
- Putting the child centre stage of the policy
- Different schools for different talents
- Confidence and autonomy
- Innovation and modernisation.
The details of the strategy are developed in pages 55-77 of the 2018-2023 coalition agreement.
Overview of the education reform process and drivers
In Luxembourg, educational reforms are proposed to the Chamber of Deputies in the name of the Grand Duke by the minister responsible for Education, Children and Youth and/or Higher Education and Research. The Chamber of Deputies has legislative power and steers the political debate (see its missions).
The legislative process is described on the Chamber's website. It consists of several consecutive steps:
- Draft law or bill: launch of the legislative process
- Referral to the committees: a necessary step
- Discussion in public session: presentation and final amendments
- Voting: a two-stage process (with a second vote following the opinion of the Council of State, unless the Council of State waives it)
- Promulgation: signature by the Grand Duke
- Entry into force: publication in the Official Journal.