Skip to main content
European Commission logo


EACEA National Policies Platform:Eurydice
Political, social and economic background and trends


1.Political, social and economic background and trends

Last update: 27 November 2023

Hungary is a Central-European country, situated in the Carpathian basin and covering an area of 93,030 square km. The population of Hungary is 9,730,772 (as of 1 January 2021) In the past decade, due to the fewer births, the downward trend in mortality and the increase in life expectancy, the population has been ageing. The population is the following according to settlement types: 1,723,836 people live in Budapest; 5,102,987 in other towns;  and 2,903,949 in villages. Nearly 70.5% of the population live in towns and urban communities; Budapest and its agglomeration concentrate nearly 30% of the total population.

Hungary is a parliamentary republic. The supreme body of legislative power and popular representation is the unicameral National Assembly (Parliament). The main task of the National Assembly is legislation. Members of the Parliament are elected by the citizens for four years. The head of state is the President of the Republic, elected by the Parliament by two-thirds majority for five years. The National Assembly holds the vote on the election of the Prime Minister based on the parliamentary majority rule and on the adoption of the Government's programme at the same time. The government is formed by the appointment and oath of the ministers.

Hungary has a two-tier local government system, the Act on Local governments of Hungary (CLXXXIX of 2011) and the Fundamental Law distinguishes a municipal and a regional level. The official language of Hungary is Hungarian. The vast majority of the population of the country is Hungarian, and Hungary belongs to the less multicultural societies. According to the Act on the Rights of Nationalities , 13 national minorities are officially recognized in Hungary (Bulgarian, Roma, Greek, Croatian, Polish, German, Armenian, Romanian, Ruthenian, Serbian, Slovakian, Slovenian, and Ukrainian). Based on the census of 2011, the ratio of national minorities to the entire population is 7.7%.