Since May 2022, the sector level governance and administration of public education (general education) lies with the State Secretariat for Public Education of the Ministry of Interior. The governance of vocational education and training lies with the Ministry of Culture and Innovation.
The Minister responsible for education prepares acts and government decrees, carries out policy and strategic development, and regulates the operation of the institutions by ministerial decrees. These are mandatory for the maintainers and the institutions.
Central sectoral management of public education
Among the management of the sector, the Minister responsible
- sets out the organisation of the school year in a decree,
- regularly, but at least every 5 years, evaluates - with the assistance of the council established by him/her - the experience of the introduction and application of the National Core Programme for Kindergarten Education and Care and the National Core Curriculum, initiates the necessary amendments with the Government if necessary, monitors the publication and distribution of textbooks, regulates the system of subsidies for textbooks;
- ensures the organisation of the national pedagogical assistance services and the free provision of pedagogical assistance services to public educational institutions
- ensures the monitoring and evaluation of pedagogical work in educational institutions at the national, regional, county and metropolitan levels with the assistance of the Educational Authority
- maintains the public education information system.
New Education Administration System under the Public Education Act
The Public Education Act adopted in 2011 extends the competence of the Minister for public education in line with the public administration reform. With the Act CLXXXVIII of 2012 the state has taken over the schools (as state schools), which were previously operated by the municipalities, leaving only the maintenance of kindergartens as a compulsory municipal task.
To operate state-maintained schools, the government has established a national school maintenance centre, which has been transformed by 30 November 2015.
The maintenance and operation of the new state public education institution has two levels: the Klebelsberg Centre, as a middle management body for school districts, exercises its management, as well as the efficiency and financial control powers. The government has designated 60 maintainer centre of school districts as bodies in charge of public education. The maintainer centre of school district is a central budgetary entity with an economic organization.
The Klebelsberg Centre is responsible for preparing and sending to the Minister the documents of the employer’s measure related to the appointment, assignment and revocation of assignment of the head of the public education institution. The Klebelsberg Centre enforces the requirements of regular and effective financial management of the public education institutions’ resources, especially the payment appropriation, approved headcount and the property managed or used by the institution.
In its statutory tasks, the Klebelsberg Centre collects and analyses statistical data, and contributes at a national level to the organization with the tasks of determining the orientation of territorial public education. It carries out the tasks related to the development of funding sources, the planning and implementation of EU programmes, also it ensures the coordination of the applications and the project activities for the school district centres. It provides professional and strategic coordination of the maintenance activities for the school district centres. It provides technical support for the development and implementation of the public education institution’s development plans, if the maintainer is the school district.
The Educational Authority helps the work of the Minister responsible for education and contributes to the implementation of legislations.
The Educational Authority is present in both public and higher education, in the continuous education of students, in studies, administration of language exams or in the management of the affairs of teachers participating in an in-service training. The Authority effectively brings together all areas of the Hungarian education and training system.
In its competence, the Educational Authority performs the following on national level:
- operates the whole range of educational and pedagogical counselling services for the public education institutions maintained by the state within the frameworks of performing public education duties,
- develops and operates the information and process-supporting IT systems required for the performance of the pedagogic services,
- operates and develops the system of national pedagogical assessment system,
- operates and develops the national system of counselling,
- organises the system of subject areas, subjects and subject management system,
- elaborates and implements accredited or non-accredited trainings,
- organises study competitions and pedagogical information on the basis of standard rules of procedure,
- performs the duties related to promotion system of teachers and supervision procedures,
- is responsible for the admission process in public and higher education: EA registers applicants and their data, and assists applicants with a wide range of information,
- carries out the domestic recognition of certificates issued by foreign universities and language exam certificates,
- preparest he upper-secondary school leaving exams,
- judges applications for deferral of compulsory education
- decides on individual work schedule requests
- operates the Public Education Information System
- organizes national public education study competitions including the most prestigious National Secondary School Academic Competition.
The regional Pedagogical Educational Centres of the Educational Authority perform the local duties of the Authority related to educational and pedagogical counselling services:
- operation of the subject areas and subject management network,
- assignment of educational advisors,
- teacher information activity,
- educational administrative information activity,
- pedagogical assessment duties,
- organisation of in-service trainings, professional conferences, information sessions,
- organisation of study competitions,
- information and counselling for students,
- system-level support of students endangered by dropping out,
- the educational and pedagogical counselling services for ethnic minority education.
EA’s responsibilities cover the entire education system: from the first student ID card of a 7-year-old entering into primary education to 20 years later, receiving the diploma, students can manage all official matters related to their studies with the help of the EA.
Vocational Training and Adult Education
Within the Hungarian education and training system, the Ministry of Culture and Innovation (formerly the Ministry of Innovation and Technology) is responsible for vocational education and training and higher education, the Ministry of the Interior for public education. However, depending on the economic sub-sector, responsibility for qualifications may be shared between the Ministry of Culture and Innovation and other ministries (e.g. the Ministry of Agriculture for agricultural qualifications).
The Minister responsible for vocational training and adult education is in charge of:
- the management of the vocational training centres (established by him/her), the management– on behalf of the state - of vocational education and training institutions (which are operating under the vocational training centres),
- carries out the tasks related to the use of the training component of the earmarked public funds for employment programmes.
- issuing training and learning outcome requirements and curriculum in accordance with the opinion of the member of the Government responsible for the given sector,
- keeping a register of the programme requirements for vocational qualifications,
- developing vocational training textbooks, digital curricula and other study aids with the consent of the government member responsible for the given sector,
- ensuring the definition of the content of the central examination and the interactive examination of vocational training, developing the assessment guidelines and other documents of vocational training,
- ensuring the necessary conditions for the operation of the Vocational Education and Training Innovation Council,
- operating the vocational training information centre,
- performing research, development and service tasks related to vocational training and develops the methodology of the evaluation of teachers,
- ensuring the operation of the registration and study system, and its subsystem, the system supporting the prevention of early school leaving, as well as the operation of the management in closed system distance learning.
As of 1 January, 2020, the new Vocational Education and Training Act launched the Vocational Education and Training Innovation Council. Its task is to reconcile the interests of national strategic issues of vocational education and training. As a national body for professional decision-making, commenting and proposing, the Council assists the Minister responsible for vocational training in carrying out his/her duties in relation to vocational training. The Council provides an opinion on strategic issues concerning the development of the vocational training system, the principles of the vocational training support system, draft legislation concerning vocational training, proposes the development of vocational requirements, curricula and new procedures, evaluates the effectiveness of vocational training. It also delivers an opinion on the application of vocational training curricula and professional requirements and makes recommendations on the employment opportunities.
From May 2022, the state secretariat responsible for adult training is under the Ministry of Technology and Industry.
The National Office of Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning(NOVETAL) is the most important institution for the operational delivery of the regulatory system in adult education.
The Hungarian Chamber of Commerce and Industry (MKIK):
- elaborates the qualification and examination criteria of vocational qualifications to be issued by the Minister responsible for vocational training in a decree,
- controls the compliance with the Vocational Education and Training Act of apprenticeship contracts concluded by employers, carries out the review of legality of workplaces providing practical training,
- performs of the complex monitoring of the quality of vocational training,
- makes a proposal to the Minister responsible for vocational training on the directions of enrolment in vocational training institutions,
- develops quality conditions for the registration of dual training workshops and places,
- keeps a register of dual training workshops and places,
- facilates the conclusion of vocational training employment contracts, thus encourages economic organizations to participate in vocational training.
Sectoral Skills Councils monitor the structure of the vocational training system of their own sector, the economic, labour market and technical-technological processes. They carry out the following tasks:
- providing an expert opinion in connection with the registration of the programme requirements of a training
- can make elaborate proposals for
- the duration of vocational education,
- the training and learning outcomes requirements,
- the content of textbooks and other educational aids,
- recommending the definition of the Register of Vocational Occupations
- preparing the proposal for definition of the aims and the short- and medium-term development of vocational education and training
The number of members of the Sector Skills Councils, including the chairman, is a minimum of 8 and a maximum of 24. One member is delegated by the Minister responsible for vocational education and training, a maximum of 3 persons are delegated by the member of the Government responsible for the given sector, and one is delegated by employee representatives. Additional members of the Sectoral Skills Councils are delegated by economic operators in the sector. The duration of their mandate is 2 years.
Based on the Act LXXX of 2019 on Vocational Education and Training, the Sectoral Skills Councils are operating in the following sectors:
- mining and metallurgy
- healthcare technology
- electronics and electrotechnics
- food industry
- construction industry
- building services engineering
- woodworking and furniture industry
- business and management
- mechanical engineering
- IT and telecommunications
- environment and water
- traffic and transportation
- agriculture and forestry
- except machinery and vehicle construction
- tourism and hospitality
- chemical industry
The Hungarian Chamber of Commerce and Industry (MKIK) plays an important role in the functioning of the adult education system. As a professional organization and as a general advocate of the economic operators, the chamber has adequate information and views on the needs of the economy, thus they are able to visualize the content and structural needs related to business and economic training.
MKIK’s responsibilities related to adult training:
- to operate the committee for the registration, modification and deletion of registration of the programme requirements in adult training;
- to keep records of adult training programme requirements and to exercise related licenses with the involvement of the Chamber of Agriculture;
- to prepare the professional classification of the adult training programme requirements according to the Register of Vocational Occupations and to define and classify the programme requirements according to the HuQF, which is related to the EQF;
- to perform duties related to the licensing of experts in adult training programmes, to maintain electronic records of the people authorized to perform the activity of licensed experts;
- to take part in the control of adult training providers (e.g. to comply with the legal/reporting requirements, to detect unauthorized adult training activities),
- the register of dual training places is kept by the Chamber of Commerce. The regional chamber of commerce - in whose territory the dual training place - is competent for registration,
- to develop and maintain uniform principles for the preparation of training and learning outcomes requirements in the framework of professional and methodological development of vocational training,
- to operate and develop the areas of the Hungarian Qualifications Framework related to vocational education and training by coordinating domestic and international qualifications, in accordance with the requirements of the European Qualifications Framework and cooperating with the fields of education, to continuously develop the professional structure,
- to participate in the development and maintenance of uniform principles of the credit system applicable to higher education on the basis of the European Credit System for Vocational Education and Training;
- To operate a national system of level examinations: to measure a learner's ability to work under supervision and to qualify for practical training in a dual training scheme in a business organisation. The trainee must demonstrate this knowledge by means of a level examination;
- Professional examination assistance;
- Master training and examination.
Act CCIV of 2011 grants higher education institutions full professional autonomy in governance and administration of their institution. Sector level governance of higher education is the responsibility of the Ministry of culture and Innovation. Governance tasks include the development of the higher education, dialogue between stakeholders in higher education as well as the development of science and employment policy. The responsibilities of higher education policy include the research and development, innovation in higher education and industry relations.
The Minister responsible for Higher Education is in charge for:
- preparing legislation on higher education policy,
- operating the career tracking system,
- overseeing the lawful operation of non-state higher education institutions, and
- operating a professional supervision system.
The Minister also fulfils governing duties deriving from the rights of the maintainer in case of state-run higher education institutions. In exercising this right, the Minister shall decide on the authorisation of the establishment or reorganisation of higher education institutions on the basis of an expert opinion. Since May 2020, the Ministry of Culture and Innovation performs the preparation of legislation, the development of a higher education sectoral strategy and the planning and implementation of system-level interventions. In the case of state higher education institutions, also carries out the maintenance tasks of the institution.
In addition to the Ministry, the official tasks are carried out by the Educational Authority. The Educational Authority manages the registration of training programmes, operates the higher education admission system and the Higher Education Information System.
In addition to the Educational Authority, the Hungarian Higher Education Accreditation Committee operates as an independent body, which performs external quality control of higher education institutions and gives accreditation to the institutions for a period of five years. It proposes measures for inappropriate quality and performs intermediate checks. Other bodies in the field of higher education:
- the National Doctoral Council, responsible for the operation of the doctoral schools,
- the Higher Education Planning Board, complies with the requirements of the labour market,
- the Dual Training Council is responsible for the joint dual training of higher education and companies,
- the Hungarian Rectors' Conference represents the higher education institutions,
- the Conference of National Union of Students and the Association of Hungarian PhD and DLA Students represent the interests of students.