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EACEA National Policies Platform:Eurydice
Administration and governance at central and/or regional level


2.Organisation and governance

2.6Administration and governance at central and/or regional level

Last update: 9 June 2022

Public Education

Since 2010 September, the sector level governance and administration of public education (general education) lies with the Ministry of Human Resources. The sector level governance and governance of vocational training and adult education lies with the Ministry for Innovation and Technology (State Secretariat for Employment Policy). The two ministries have a joint responsibility over vocational training within the school system.

The Minister responsible for education prepares acts and government decrees, carries out policy and strategic development, and regulates the operation of the institutions by ministerial decrees. These are mandatory for the maintainers and the institutions.

Among the management of the sector, the Minister responsible for education

  • prepares the education budget,
  • sets out the organisation of the school year in a decree,
  • prepares the National Core Curriculum and National Core Programme for Kindergartens set out by government decree,
  • prepares the framework curricula for each programme type,
  • sets out secondary school leaving examination rules and requirements,
  • organises the upper secondary entrance examination and the upper secondary school leaving examination,
  • provides the framework for in-service teacher training courses,
  • organises the national assessment of basic competences,
  • approves school textbooks,
  • maintains the information system of school education.

New Education Administration System under the Public Education Act

The new Public Education Act adopted in 2011 extends the competence of the Minister for public education in line with the public administration reform. By the Act CLXXXVIII of 2012 has taken over the schools (as state schools), which were previously operated by the municipalities. Pursuant to the new Public Education Act, municipalities are obliged to maintain kindergartens only.

To operate state-maintained schools, the government has established a national school maintenance centre, which has been transformed by 30 November 2015.

The maintenance and operation of the new state public education institution has two levels: the Klebelsberg Center, as a minddle management body for tanker districts, exercises its management, as well as the efficiency and financial control powers. The government has designated 60 maintainer centre of school districts as bodies in charge of public education. The maintainer centre of school district is a central budgetary entity with an economic organization.

As of 1 January 2017, the Klebelsberg Institution Maintenance Centre is involved in the management of the sector (shared duty with the Minister responsible for education). KLIK decides on the financial management competence, reorganisation, termination of the public education institution, or about the transfer of the maintenance rights, the name of the institution, its budget, rules of charges, tuition fees, social discounts. KLIK makes a recommendation to the Minister about the decision on the establishment, reorganisation or termination of the public education institution, cooperates in the preparation of the decision, and prior to making the proposal, obtains the consent and opinion of the party entitled to provide such according to the legal regulations. It is the duty of KLIK to prepare and send to the Minister the documents of the employer’s measure related to the appointment, assignment and revocation of assignment of the director of the public education institution. KLIK enforces the requirements of regular and effective financial management of the public education institutions’ resources, especially the payment appropriation, approved headcount and the property managed or used by the institution.

In its statutory tasks, KLIK collect and analyses statistical data, and contributes at a national level to the organization with the tasks of determining the orientation of territorial public education. It carries out the tasks related to the development of funding sources, the planning and implementation of EU programmes, also it ensures the coordination of the applications and the project activites for the school districts. It provides professional and strategic coordination of the maintenance activities for the school districts. It provides technical support for the development and implementation of the public education institution’s development plans, if the maintenar is the school districts.

KLIK enforces the requirements of regular and effective financial management of the public education institutions’ resources, especially the payment appropriation, approved headcount and the property managed or used by the institution.

In its statutory tasks, KLIK collect and analyses statistical data, and contributes at a national level to the organization with the tasks of determining the orientation of territorial public education.

It carries out the tasks related to the development of funding sources, the planning and implementation of EU programmes, also it ensures the coordination of the applications and the project activites for the school districts.

It provides professional and strategic coordination of the maintenance activities for the school districts. It provides technical support for the development and implementation of the public education institution’s development plans, if the maintenar is the school districts.

The Educational Authority helps the work of the Minister responsible for education.

The Educational Authority is present in both public and higher education, in further education of students, in studies, administration of language exams or in the management of the affairs of teachers participating in an in-service training. The Authority effectively brings together all areas of the Hungarian education and training. In addition to accounting for public and higher education institutions and dormitores, the Authority also registers the ’citizens’ of education: students and teachers, their student and teacher ID cards are also issued at the Authority.

In its competence, the Educational Authority performs the following with national scope:

  • operates the whole range of educational and pedagogical counselling services for the public education institutions maintained by the state within the frameworks of performing public education duties, 
  • develops and operates the information and process-supporting IT systems required for the performance of the pedagogic services,
  • operates and develops the system of national pedagogical assessment system,
  • operates and develops the national system of counselling,
  • organises the specialisation, course unit and course unit management system,
  • elaborates and implements accredited or non-accredited specialist trainings,
  • organises study competitions and teacher information on the basis of standard rules of procedure,
  • performs the duties related to pedagogic career system and supervision procedures,
  • is responsible for the recruitment process in public and higher education: EA registers applicants and their data, and assists applicants with a wide range of information,
  • carries out the domestic recognition of certificates issued by foreign universities and language exam certificates,
  • preparest he upper-secondary school leaving exams,
  • organizes national public education study competitions.

The regional pedagogical education centres of the Educational Authority perform the local duties of the Authority related to educational and pedagogical counselling services:

  • operation of the specialisation and course unit management network,
  • assignment of educational advisors,
  • teacher information activity,
  • educational administrative information activity,
  • pedagogical assessment duties,
  • organisation of specialist training, professional conferences, information sessions,
  • organisation of study competitions,
  • information and counselling for students,
  • system-level support of students endangered by dropping out,
  • the nationality educational and pedagogical counselling services.

EA’s responsibilities cover the entire education system: from the first student ID card of a 7-year-old entering into primary education to 20 years later, receiving the diploma, students can manage all offical matters related to their studies with the help of the EA.

Vocational Training and Adult Education

From 22 May 2018, the Hungarian education and training system is governed by the Ministry for Innovation and Technology – formerly governed by the previous Ministry of National Economy – in adult education and vocational training, while in the field of public and higher education is governed by the Ministry of Human Resources. However, depending on the economic subsector, responsibility for the qualifications can be shared between the Ministry for Innovation and Technology and other ministries (e.g.: in the case of agricultural degrees: the Ministry of Agriculture).

The Minister responsible for vocational training and adult education is in charge of:

  • the management of the vocational training centres (established by him/her), the management competences – on behalf of the state - in vocational training schools (which are operating under the vocational training centres),
  • performing tasks related to the training fund supported by the National Employment Service,
  • issuing training and outcome requirements and curriculum in accordance with the opinion of the Minister responsible of the given sector,
  • keeping a register of the programme requirements for vocational qualifications,
  • developing vocational training textbooks, digital curricula and other study aids with the consent of the government responsible for the given sector,
  • ensuring the definition of the content of the central examination and the interactive examination of vocational training, developing the assessment guidelines and other documents of vocational training,
  • ensuring the necessary conditions for the opretaion of the Vocational Innovation Council,
  • operating the vocational training information centre,
  • performing research and development service tasks related to vocational training and develops the methodology of the evaluation of teachers,
  • ensuring the operation of the registration and study system, and its subsystem, the system supporting the prevention of early school leaving, as well as the operation of the management in closed system distance learning.

The National Vocational and Adult Education Council (NSZFT) assisted the Minister responsible for vocational training and adult education in the field of vocational training and adult education. The NSZFT operated as a nation-wide professional preparatory, proposing and commenting body in decision-making. As of 1 January, 2020, the new Vocational Training Act launched the Vocational Training Innovation Council (SZIT). Its task is to reconcile the interests of national strategic issues of vocational education and training. As a national body for professional decision-making, commenting and proposing, the SZIT assists the Minister responsible for vocational training in carrying out his/her duties in relation to vocational training. The SZIT provides an opinion on strategic issues concerning the development of the vocational training system, the principles of the vocational training support system, draft legislation concerning vocational training, proposes the development of vocational requirements, curricula and new procedures, evaluates the effectiveness of vocational training. It also delivers an opinion on the application of vocational training curricula and professional requirements and makes reccommendations on the employment opportunities.

The National Agency for Vocational Training and Adult Education (NSZFH) is the most important institution for the operational delivery of the regulatory system in adult education. The National Agency for Vocational Training and Adult Education takes part in the planning, implementation and monitoring of the ministry's vocational training- and adult education policy and gives regular reports on the results. The National Agency for Vocational Training and Adult Education operated various expert committees related to VET and adult learning.

The most relevant ones were:

  • The National Qualifications Committee: a professional proposer and reviewer for the improvement and modernization of vocational training’s structure
  • The County Development and Training Committee (MFKB) proposes a professional structure for each academic year and each county (also for outside the school system adult).

The Hungarian Chamber of Commerce and Industry (MKIK):

  • elaborates the qualification and examination criteria of vocational qualifications to be issued by the Minister for vocational training in a decree,
  • controls the compliance with the Vocational Training Act of apprenticeship contracts concluded by employers,
  • performs quality control of vocational training,
  • makes a proposal to the Minister responsible for vocational training on the directions of enrollment in vocational training institutions,
  • develops quality conditions for the registration of dual training workshops and places,
  • keeps a register of dual training workshops and places,
  • promotes the conclusion of vocational training employment contracts, thus encourages economic organizations to participate in vocational training.

Sectoral Skill Councils:

  • Sectoral Skill Councils represent the professional proposals of economic organizations for the continuous development and mondernization of the content structure of vocational training and the professional suggestions for matching labour market needs and training.
  • The Sectoral Skills Council continuously monitors the development of the vocational training structure, economic, labor market, technical-technological processes in its sector, and on the basis of this gives an expert opinion in connection with the registration of the vocational training programme requirements.
  • makes a developed proposal on the duration of vocational education, training and outcome requirements, the content of textbooks and other study aids, the operation of the vocational education training system, the definition of the professional content of sectoral education and prepares a forecast in order to determine and plan the directions and goals of the short- and medium-term development of vocational training.
  • The Sectoral Skill Councils propose to define the list of vocational professions. In the absence of a proposal, the list should be established by the Minister responsible for vocational training - in consent with the opinion of the given responsible from the government.
  • The training council in order to enforce the rights and fulfill the duties of students in the vocational training institutions, to support the educational work, the teaching board, the legal representatives of the students, the maintainer, promotes the co-operation of other organizations with an interest in the operation of the VET institutions and represents the interests of local communities. This body may be set up in the vocational training institution.

Decision Making of the Professional Structure

Vocational schools are eligible for budget support if their decision of the professional structure containes the maintainer’s range, or the financial support for the vocational qualification is unlimited.

The maintenance of the basic tasks of vocational training is covered by the maintainer’s own budget. The costs of the specialized further vocational trainings organized in the vocational training institution are covered by the maintainer, the costs of the specialized dual training organized are covered by the dual training workshop orplace, as defined by law. A maintainer with a maintenance agreement is entitled to the support declared in the Central Budget Act. In addition to the support for performing the basic vocational training tasks, the state may provide additional support. The training fund of the National Employment Service includes appropriations for the performance of tasks related to vocational training, the organization, operation and development of vocational training, as well as the payment of scholarships, one-time start-up allowances and grants, and the financing of dual training. The training fund of the National Employment Servce can be used to provide support related to the organization and development of adult education activities.

Until the 2016-2017 school year, the government decree implying the decision of the professional structure, did not separate the framework numbers for full-time education and adult education. In line with the changes adopted in the summer of 2016, the County Development and Training Committees will have to make separate proposals for full-time education and adult education frameworks.

In the future, ’vocational training 4.0’ strategy ( determines how professional structure decisions are made. According to the new strategy, the professions that can only be acquired within the framework of vocational education in a vocational training institution are established in a Government decree (the list of professions). In the list of professions, the identification number of the profession, the field of study, sectoral classification, indication for determining its level, name of the profession, related profession, duration of vocational education must be determined for each profession.

Training and outcome requirements must be laid down for the professions, which ensure the operation of the monitoring, measurement and evaluation system and are mandatory in vocational training. The training and outcome requirements - as a partial profession - can be defined as an independently separable part of the profession, if it enables the acquisition of the competencies necessary for filling at least one job.

In the upcoming decades, job descriptions will transform and the competencies expected by employers will also change. The new expected skills and competencies must also appear in the training content as well. As a result, vocational training becomes more flexible and interoperable, with students being able to switch between institution type (technicum school and new vocational school) at the end of 9th grade without a differential exam. Retraining within the sector becomes easier because, by taking into account common professional foundations, it is possible to acquire a new profession in a significantly shorter time. The new strategy also aims to update obsolete professions and provide an attractive but realistic picture of the content of professions, disposable income, opportunities for advancement and shows how to choose a profession based on good skills and interests through youth-style job descriptions and presentations.

As part of the OKJ transformation, the content of the joint sectoral foundation training will also be determined with the participation of the Sector Skill Councils. In addition to the required professional knowledge, the required competencies must also be defined in the case of basic professions. In the expectations of employers, the key competencies appear at the same level as professional knowledge: complex problem solving, creative thinking or teamwork. The content and mandatory set of tools for basic traineeships in school workshops need to be defined. Complex structural development is needed, in which school-based and out-of-school trainings form a unified system.

The renewal of vocational and adult education and training is possible on the basis of a professional policy with the involvement of the economy and professional actors. This primarily means the involvement of economic actors, employers, as they can determine the expectations of the workforce. The Ministry of Innovation and Technology has established the Vocational Training Innovation Council (SZIT), which plays a decision-making role. The members of the council are the representatives of the organizations that are directly involved in the operation of the vocational training system. The new system strives to ensure that professional policy and professional structure decisions are based on facts and data. At present, the County Development and Training Committees are responsible for preparing county-level training structure decisions, but their operation is not unified and not entirely data-based. The new strategy seeks to establish a unified labour market forecasting system, one of the most important elements of policy and structure decisions, which would be suitable for planning school-based vocational training and adult training. Recently, employment pacts have been established at the county level, in cities with county status and in micro-regions. In this context, it is also important that county chambers integrate the needs of local businesses.

The Hungarian Chamber of Commerce and Industry (MKIK) plays an important role in the functioning of the adult education system of 2013. As a professional organization and as a general advocate of the economic operators, the chamber has adequate information and views on the needs of the economy, thus they are able to visualize the content and structural needs related to business and economic training. Accordingly, the Act on Adult Education provides the Chamber with key competences in matters related to vocational training, and in some cases with exclusive decision-making competencies.

MKIK’s responsibilities under the Adult Education Act:

  • to operate the Committee for the Registration, Modification and Deletion of Registration of Adult Education Requirements;
  • to keep records of adult education programme requirements and to exercise related licenses with the involvement of the Chamber of Agriculture;
  • to prepare the professional classification of the adult education programme requirements according to the OKJ and to define and classify the programme requirements according to the HQF related to the EQF;
  • to perform duties related to the licensing of experts in adult education programmes, to maintain electronic records of the people authorized to perform the activity of licensed experts in adult education;
  • to take part in the control of adult education institutions (eg to comply with the legal/reporting requirements, to detect unauthorized adult education activities),
  • the register of dual training places is kept by the Chamber of Commerce. The regional chamber of commerce - in whose territory the dual training place - is competent for registration,
  • to develop and maintain uniform principles for the preparation of training and outcome requirements in the framework of professional and methodological development of vocational training,
  • to operate and develop the areas of the Hungarian Qualifications Framework related to vocational training by coordinating domestic and international qualifications, in accordance with the requirements of the European Qualifications Framework and cooperating with the fields of education, to continuously develop the professional structure,
  • to participate in the development and maintenance of uniform principles of the credit system applicable to higher education on the basis of the European Credit System for Vocational Education and Training;
  • at the request of the Minister responsible for vocational training, the responsible member of the government for the given sector determines the content of the central examination and the interactive examination of the vocational examination and develops their evaluation guidelines and other documents.

MKIK receives funding from the central framework of the training fund of the National Employment Fund to fulfil its tasks on the basis of its contract with the NSZFH.

Higher Education

Act CCIV of 2011 grants higher education institutions full professional autonomy in governance and administration of their institution. Sector level governance of higher education is the responsibility of the Minister for Human Resources. Governance tasks include the development of the higher education, dialogue between stakeholders in higher education as well as the development of science and employment policy. The responsibilities of higher education policy are shared between the Minister of Human Resources and the Minister for Innovation and Technology. The latter is responsible for research, development and innovation in higher education, and for the higher education – industry relations.

The Minister for Higher Education is in charge for:

  • preparing legal regulations on higher education policy,
  • preparing the higher education budget,
  • determining the number of state scholarships (state-funded places) every year for each institution and discipline,
  • operating the higher education information system,
  • operating the career tracking system,
  • overseeing the lawful operation of non-state higher education institutions, and
  • operating a professional supervision system.

The Minister also fulfils governing duties deriving from the rights of the operator in case of state maintained higher education institutions. In this role, the Minister may pass a resolution on the basis of an expert opinion in issues (such as allowing establishment or transformation of a higher education institution). In state maintained higher education institutions, the Minister exercises employer’s rights above the heads of institutions, except for appointment and dismissal.

The State Secretary for Higher Education of the Ministry of Human Resources performs the preparation of legislation, the creation of a higher education sector strategy and the planning and implementation of system-level interventions. In the case of state higher education institutions, the same State Secretariat also carries out the maintenance tasks of the institution.

In addition to the Ministry, the official tasks are carried out by the Educational Authority. The Educational Authority carries out the registration of training courses, operates the higher education system and the Higher Education Information System. In addition to the Educational Authority, the Hungarian Higher Education Accreditation Committee operates as an independent body, which performs external quality control of higher education institutions and gives accreditation to the institutions for a period of five years. It proposes measures for inappropriate quality and performs intermediate checks. Other bodies in the field of higher education: