Adult education and training is made up of different qualification pathways that allow adults to obtain a basic school level certificate (4th, 6th or 9th grades) or an upper secondary level certification (12th grade) and/or professional certification via a process of skills recognition, validation and certification (RVCC), adult education and training courses (EFA), certified modular courses (FMC) or upper secondary completion pathways (Decree-Law No 357/2007, 29 October).
Provision aimed at raising the acquisition of basic skills
Basic competences programme
The aim of the basic competences programme is to allow adults to acquire basic skills of reading, writing, calculation and use of information and communication technologies and their subsequent integration into basic education level adult education and training courses (EFA Courses) or basic level recognition, validation and certification of competences processes (RVCC), equivalent to ISCED 1.
The programme is designed for individuals aged 18 or over who have not attended the 1st cycle of basic education or its equivalent or, having attended, do not demonstrate basic reading, writing and calculation skills.
Exceptionally, the programme can include young people under 18, providing that this inclusion encourages access to training and is done with the authorisation of the services of the Ministry of Education and the Institute for Employment and Vocational Training (IEFP, IP) with territorial competence.
Teaching methods and approaches
The programme curricula are divided into six short training units of 50 hours each:
a) Reading and writing - Beginner (code 6737);
b) Reading and writing – Further study (code 6738);
c) Reading and writing - Consolidation (code 6739);
d) Calculation - Beginner (code 6740);
e) Calculation - Further study (code 6741);
f) Information and communication technologies – awareness raising (code 6742).
The training units listed are part of the CNQ. The management of the programme’s training unit content is the responsibility of the trainer, in line with the results of the needs analysis.
The length of each programme session is established according to the objectives of each project and the characteristics of each group, and cannot be fewer than 150 hours, or exceed 300 hours.
There can be an additional 50 hours of training to consolidated learning in one of the training or competence areas.
When the duration is fewer than 300 hours, the adult’s pathway can include only the further study or consolidation units or completely exclude one area, in case learners already have those competences.
Evaluation is continuous and qualitative, gauging the progress of each learner according to the competences demonstrated in each unit at the end of the training pathway.
The successful completion of the training units included in the programme confers a qualifications certificate.
Portuguese as host language
In response to the new challenges to immigration policies, while considering the Global Migration Pact National Implementation Plan, approved by Council of Ministers Resolution No. 141/2019, 20 August, it was necessary to review the "Portuguese for All" programme, making it more comprehensive regarding adult migrants’ language learning needs in Portugal.
To achieve this, Portuguese as host language courses were created (Cursos de Português Língua de Acolhimento - PLA), through Ordinance No. 183/2020, 5 August (amended by Ordinance No. 184/2022, 21 July), replacing the Portuguese for speakers of other languages courses (Ordinance No. 1262/2009, 15 October).
These courses are designed for adults (16 or over), whose mother tongue is not Portuguese, and/or who do not have basic, intermediate or advanced skills in the language, according to the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFRL).
These courses may be promoted by public schools, by the network of directly managed and participated centres of the Institute of Employment and Vocational Training and by the Qualifica Centres network.
These courses can be taught by public schools, centres directly managed and operated by IEFP, I.P. and the network of Qualifica Centres.
Teaching methods and approaches
PLA courses are organised into competence and training frameworks, listed in the National Qualifications Catalogue (CNQ), with corresponding language proficiency levels, according to the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (Quadro Europeu Comum de Referência para as Línguas - CEFRL) and respective workload.
Me and my daily routine (code 6452) – 25 hours
Diet, culture and leisure (code 6453) – 25 hours
The human body, health and services (code 6454) – 25 hours
Me and working life (code 6455) – 25 hours
My past and present (code 6456) – 25 hours
Communication and life in society (code 6457) – 25 hours
Me, society and culture (code 6397UI) – 50 hours
Me and others (code 6398UI) – 25 hours
Culture nowadays (code 6399UI) – 25 hours
Society and life projects (code 6400UI) – 50 hours
Current affairs (code 6401UI) – 25 hours
Whenever candidates use an alphabet other than Latin or another writing system, a 25-hour training unit can be taught ("Graphic dimension and alphabet in Portuguese for users of other writing systems" - UFCD 10647).
The successful completion of short training units included in each level, according to the type of user (elementary or independent) confers an A1, A2, B1 and B2 level certificate.
The short training units that make up the PLA course can also be credited for school qualifications or dual certification, as part of the basic or upper secondary education key competences frameworks.
Provision aimed at achieving a recognised qualification
Adult education and training (EFA) courses
EFA Courses, which are regulated by Ordinance No. 86/2022, 4 February, are flexible training paths adapted to the needs of adults, allowing them to improve their qualifications, particularly those who have not completed upper secondary education.
EFA courses are taught by entities included in the network of training providers within the National Qualifications System (Sistema Nacional de Qualificações - SNQ) and are based on basic competences and technological training frameworks associated with the respective qualifications found in the CNQ.
These courses are taught according to dual certification pathways and, whenever appropriate to the profile and life story of adults, solely for academic qualifications.
Adults who have successfully completed the third cycle of compulsory education or upper secondary education and who aim to achieve dual certification may, if possible, attend the technological training component of an EFA course.
EFA courses that do not have technological training and practical training in a work context is taught exclusively by public, private or cooperative teaching establishments with pedagogic parallelism and by vocational training centres that are managed directly or via protocol.
These courses are designed for adults aged 18 and over who do not have the appropriate qualifications to enter or progress in the employment market and, especially, those who have yet to complete basic or upper secondary education.
Type A EFA upper secondary level courses, which are taught during the day, can only be attended by adults aged 21 or over.
Exceptionally and depending on the candidate’s profile and the geographical distribution of the provision, the service that authorises the EFA Course operation can approve that learners under 18 on the date that the course begins attend, providing that are currently working.
Teaching methods and approaches
EFA courses are devised according to:
- a lifelong learning perspective as a mechanism for encouraging socio-professional reintegration and improving qualifications.
- flexible training pathways when defined on the basis of the processes of the RVCC previously acquired by adults within a formal, informal and non-formal context.
- training pathways that are coordinated, which include a basic training and technological training or just one of these.
- modular training based on training frameworks that are part of the CNQ.
- training focussed on reflective processes and the acquisition of competences that facilitate and encourage learning via units of competence (UC) of the key-competence area "Personal, Social and Learning Competences" of the Adult Education and Training Key Competences Reference Framework for basic level courses or the "Reflective Learning Portfolio Area" for upper secondary level courses.
The curricula of these courses are organised around the coordination of training components, using activities that use knowledge from various fields, usually conferring dual certification. These curricula should have the necessary flexibility in order to allow attendance of training unit credits via non-continuous pathways by adult learners whose RVCC process identified and validated competences that suggested referral to particular training units that are part of a broader training pathway.
The length of training, the type of operation and the weekly workload are ajusted to fit with the learners’ professional and life circumstances.
On working days, the number of training hours should obey the following maximums:
- 7 hours per day and 35 hours per week, when during working hours
- 4 hours per day, when post-work
Training groups (classes) consist of a minimum number of 15 (only applicable to publicly funded training) and a maximum number of 30 trainees. When duly justified, training groups may consist of a greater or smaller numbers.
If the same training provider organises more than one dual certification course, conferring different qualifications, it can combine groups for the basic training component, providing that the maximum number of 30 students for the basic training component and the minimum of 15 for the technological training component is respected.
Basic EFA courses
Basic training comprises three levels in different key competence areas, divided into units of competence.
EFA courses related to the training pathways B1, B2, B1+B2, B3 and B2+B3 include basic training that involves four key competence areas that are listed in the key competences reference framework for adult education and training at basic level: citizenship and employability (CE), language and communication (LC) mathematics for life (ML) information and communication technology (ICT).
In the key competences of language and communication (LC) area, foreign language competences are developed for levels B2 and B3.
EFA courses related to the training pathways B1, B2, B1+B2, B3 and B2+B3 that do not include life themes that aggregate learning in technological training or practical training in a work context. When this is required, it should include themes directly related with the profession, such as vocational guidance or development, entrepreneurship or others that are relevant to learners on the course.
The technological training component included on these courses is divided into short training units in accordance with the training framework listed in CNQ and can include practical training in the workplace, which is compulsory for adults in B3 and B2 + B3 training pathways and those who are working in the area of the course or a related area.
The activities undertaken by the learner during the period of practical training in a work context should be covered by an individual plan, agreed between the training body, the learner and the organising body, identifying objectives, content, the programme, duration, schedule and place of activities, forms of monitoring and supervision of the adult, with the identification of those responsible, as well as the rights and duties of those involved.
The guidance and supervision of the learner are shared by the workplace and the training body, the latter being responsible for coordination duties, while the former appoints a tutor with appropriate professional experience.
Type and workload
EFA courses curricula – flexible pathway and training pathways B1, B2, B1+B2, B3, B2+B3 (maximum duration stipulated):
B1 courses – regarding the first cycle of basic education
Training components: 790 hours in total: learning with autonomy (40 h), basic training (400 h) and technological training (350 h).
B2 courses – level 1 QNQ qualification
Training components: 840 hours in total: learning with autonomy (40 h), basic training (450 h) and technological training (350 h).
B1+B2 courses – level 1 QNQ qualification
Training components: 1 240 hours in total: learning with autonomy (40 h), basic training (850 h) and technological training (350 h).
B3 courses – level 2 QNQ qualification
Training components: 1 940 hours in total: learning with autonomy (40 h), basic training (900 h) and technological training (1 000 h).
B2+B3 courses – level 2 QNQ qualification
Training components: 2 390 hours in total: learning with autonomy (40 h), basic training (1 350 h) and technological training (1 000 h).
Flexible pathways based on RVCC processes – regarding first cycle of basic education or level 1 or level 2 QNQ:
Training components: the total number of hours is adjusted to the process: learning with autonomy (40 h), basic training (up to 1 350 h) and technological training (up to 1 000 h).
Upper secondary level EFA courses
Upper secondary level courses related to training pathways S and S3, type A, B and C, include basic training which comprises of three coordinated key competences areas: citizenship and professionalism (CP), society, technology and science (STS), culture, language and communication (CLC).
Each basic training competences unit corresponds to a short training unit which is listed in the CNQ, which map out the learning outcomes to achieve and training content.
The list of generative areas is specific in the key competences field of citizenship and professionalism, being common in the key competences areas of society, technology and science (STS) and culture, language and communication (CLC), according to the upper secondary level key competences reference framework.
The organisation of the set of themes associated with the generative areas and around which the learning process of the basic training component is constructed can vary according to the learners’ profile.
The technological training component is divided into short training units according to the training frameworks that are part of the CNQ.
On S3 pathways, Types A, B and C, courses can include practical training in a work context, which is compulsory for the adult who does not work in the professional area that the course focusses on or a related area. If the adult is working, they can be exempt from this training component if they are given permission by the service responsible.
The training process of the upper secondary level courses also includes the reflective learning portfolio, which is included in basic training and technological training, which is geared to developing reflective processes and the acquisition of knowledge by the adult in a training context. Work on the reflective learning portfolio should happen every fortnight (when done in work time) and once a month (when done after work).
Type and workload
EFA course curricula with dual certification – flexible pathways and training paths S3, Type A, B or C (maximum duration stipulated):
S3 Courses - Type A – level 4 QNQ qualification
Training components: 2 045 total hours: reflective learning portfolio (85 h), basic training (550h), technological training (1 200 h) and practical training in a work context (210 h).
S3 Courses - Type B - level 4 QNQ qualification
Training components: 1 680 total hours: reflective learning portfolio (70 h), basic training (200 h), technological training (1 200 h) and practical training in a work context (210 h).
S3 Courses - Type C - level 4 QNQ qualification
Training components: 1 575 total hours: reflective learning portfolio (65 h), basic training (100 h), technological training (1 200 h) and practical training in a work context (210 h).
Flexible pathways based on RVCC processes - level 4 QNQ qualification
Training components: the total number of hours is adjusted to the process: reflective learning portfolio (85 h), basic training (up to 550 h), technological training (up to 1 200 h) and practical training in a work context (210 h).
EFA course curricula with academic certification – flexible pathways and training paths S3, Type A, B or C (maximum duration stipulated):
S Courses – Type A – level 3 QNQ qualification
Training components: 1 150 total hours: reflective learning portfolio (50 h), basic training (1 100 h).
S Courses – Type B – level 3 QNQ qualification
Training components: 625 total hours: reflective learning portfolio (25h), basic training (600h).
S Courses – Type C – level 3 QNQ qualification
Training components: 315 total hours: reflective learning portfolio (15h), basic training (315h).
Flexible pathways based on RVCC processes – level 3 QNQ qualification:
Training components: the total number of hours is adjusted to the process: reflective learning portfolio (50 h), basic training (up to 1 100 h).
Adult education and training course evaluation focusses on learning done and competences acquired in accordance with the applicable training framework.
Evaluation is designed to inform the adult regarding their progress, problems and the results achieved during the training process, as well as certifying the competences acquired by the learners when leaving these courses.
The evaluation should be:
- Process-based, founded on a continuous and systematic observation of the training processes.
- Contextualised, by the consistency between evaluation activities and the acquisition of knowledge and competences.
- Diversified, using a variety of techniques and information collection tools.
- Transparent, via clear and explicit success criteria.
- Guided, to the extent that it provides information about the adult’s learning progress, functioning as something that regulates the training process.
- Qualitative, involving a description of the performance of the learner, serving as a basis for decision making.
The evaluation process involves formative assessment (which occurs throughout training regarding learning results, allowing improvement and the adjustment of strategies) and summative assessment (expressed as "successful" or "unsuccessful", depending on if the trainee has achieved the training objectives or not).
In upper secondary education courses, formative evaluation occurs preferentially within the reflective learning portfolio area, which demonstrates the consolidation of the adult’s learning throughout the course. At this educational level, evaluation also involves the allocation of credits, according to the reference framework of key competences at upper secondary level, with effects on the certification of learners.
Certification awarded for a completed adult education and training course, means the learner must obtain a positive summative evaluation, passing the different components of their training pathway, such as practical training in a work context, when this is an integral part of that pathway.
The successful completion of an AET course that corresponds to any training pathway confers the respective qualifications certificate:
a) B1, obtaining the first cycle of basic education.
b) B2 and B1+B2 obtaining the second cycle of basic education, conferring a level 1 QNQ qualification.
c) B3 and B2+B3 obtaining the third cycle of basic education, and on dual-certification AET courses, as well as vocational certification, conferring a level 2 QNQ qualification.
d) S, types A, B or C, obtaining upper secondary education, conferring a level 3 QNQ qualification.
e) S3, types A, B or C, obtaining upper secondary education and vocational certification, conferring a level 4 QNQ qualification.
The successful completion of one or more competence units or short training units of an adult education and training course, but which does not allow the completion of the course in itself, leads to the issue of a qualifications certificate, in addition to the record of training completed in the Qualifica Passport.
Successful completion of dual certification courses and AET school qualifications (basic and upper secondary) also confers a diploma that attests to the conclusion of the respective qualification level of the SNQ, according to Ordinance No 782/2009, 23 July, and Order No 978/2011, 3 January.
Provision targeting the transition to the labour market
Certified modular training
Certified modular training (Formações Modulares Certificadas - FMC) is divided into units of competence (UC) or short training units (STU) to promote access to qualifications, through flexible, modular and credit-based paths, founded on the competences and training reference frameworks associated with the qualifications that are part of the CNQ.
Certified modular training can be used as credits for obtaining one or more qualifications and is given by bodies on the training network that are part of the SNQ.
Modular training is designed for adults aged 18 and over at the start of training who do not have the appropriate qualifications to enter or progress in the employment market and, especially, those who have yet to complete basic or upper secondary education.
Modular training can include learners under 18 who aim to improve their qualifications, provided they can prove they are working or socially vulnerable.
Units of competence and/or short training units that are part of basic level training pathways are primarily designed for adults with qualifications below the third cycle of compulsory education.
Access to units of competence and/or short training units that are part of upper secondary level training pathways requires completion of the third cycle of compulsory education.
The academic qualifications required to attend units of competence and/or short training units common to two reference frameworks with different pathway levels are a minimum requirement.
To attend a UC and/or STU that are part of qualifications in CNQ level 5 of the NQF requires at least the completion of upper secondary education or the 3rd cycle of compulsory schooling, provided the adult is attending one of the education or training pathways, a RVCC process at upper secondary level or a certification process.
Teaching methods and approaches
The curricular organisation of FMC is done according to the respective training frameworks found in the CNQ for each training unit, which may correspond to units of basic training, technological training or both.
Modular training pathways cannot exceed 600 hours. Whenever the training lasts longer than 300 hours, one third of the time should correspond to the units of the basic training of the CNQ frameworks.
To complete a dual certification qualification pathway via modular training, practical training in a work context is necessary. This is obligatory for adults who do not work in the corresponding professional area of the course they are attending or a job in a related area. Adults already working can be exempt from training in a work context via previous authorisation from the ANQEP, IP.
Training groups are made up of a minimum of 15 and a maximum of 30 learners. The minimum number only applies to publicly funded courses.
The evaluation process involves formative evaluation (which occurs throughout training regarding learning results, allowing improvement and the adjustment of strategies) and summative assessment (expressed as "successful" or "unsuccessful", depending on if the trainee has achieved the training objectives or not).
The criteria for formative evaluation are participation, motivation, acquisition and application of knowledge, using competences in new contexts, interpersonal relations, teamwork, adaptability to a new task, punctuality and attendance.
Obtaining a qualification through modular certified training courses requires the successful completion of all the UC and/or STU of the course in question, as well as the on-the-job training, when applicable.
The successful completion of a modular training course confers a qualifications certificate that details all competence units or short training successfully completed, as well as their addition to the Qualifica Passport.
To obtain a qualification included in the CNQ, following the successful completion of a modular training course that concludes the respective qualification, a final validation process is also required from the Qualifica Centres. Once this has been done, the final qualifications certificate and respective diploma (when applicable) are issued.
Other adult education provision
Senior Citizen Universities (Universidades de Terceira Idade (UTI)/Universidades Sénior) have existed in Portugal since 1976, as part of informal and non-formal learning. Their mission involves social integration and combating social exclusion in old age.
These are the Universidade Internacional da Terceira Idade de Lisboa (UITIL); the Universidade Popular do Porto; the Universidade de Lisboa da Terceira Idade (ULTI) and the Universidade do Autodidata e da Terceira Idade do Porto (UATIP).
Senior Citizen Universities are organised through the formation of associations, some of which become private social solidarity institutions (Instituições Particulares de Solidariedade Social – IPSS), in order to receive state funding and subsidies.
The Senior Citizen University Network (Rede de Universidades da Terceira Idade - RUTIS ) represents the senior citizen universities in Portugal. According to its statutes, it is a private social solidarity and public utility institution that supports the community and senior citizens. It is domestic and international in scope, was created in 2005 and has its head office in Almeirim. The network currently boasts 236 senior citizen universities, 38 000 senior students and 4 500 volunteer teachers.
One of the main goals of the network is promoting active ageing and senior citizen universities.
RUTIS is a member of the Portuguese State Economic and Social Council (Conselho Económico e Social do Estado Português) and the only domestic institution with an agreement with the state to promote active ageing and represent senior citizen universities.
According to the senior citizen universities’ general regulations, their objectives are the following:
- To offer students a place that is socially organised and adapted to their ages, so that they can develop personally and socially.
- To provide students with the opportunity to attend classes and courses where their knowledge can be shown, appreciated and extended.
- To organise activities promoted by and for students.
- To create meeting places in the community that act as incentives and stimulus to a feeling of sociability and human and social solidarity.
- To disseminate and preserve our history, culture, traditions and values.
- To encourage and support social volunteer work.
- To organise social, personal and vocational training for the entire community.
Generally speaking, the admission criteria for senior university are the following:
- To be 50 years old or over.
- To enjoy learning and want to learn.
- To be physically and mentally fit for undertaking activities.
- To accept the principles and regulations of the Universidade Sénior (senior citizens university).
- To enrol at the Universidade Sénior premises via an enrolment form in conjunction with personal documents.
Training provision is made up of:
- Theoretical and practical classes in a variety of subjects.
- Seminars and multi-subject courses.
- Cultural visits and trips.
- Recreational groups.
- Dissemination of information on services for senior citizens.
- Socio-cultural activities that students want.
Areas of interest are varied, as each senior student places differing importance on subjects. There are a range of programmes with theoretical and practical classes, such as: decorative arts; painting and needlework; information technology; theoretical classes on health care, English, French, tax and family law, citizenship and governance, languages, Portuguese literature, mathematics, music, choral and scenic groups, among others.
Other types of publicly subsidised training for adult learners
Recurrent education at upper secondary level is adult education created for those who have not benefited from education at the usual age or failed to complete their studies.
This provision is designed to encourage lifelong learning and improve the qualifications of our adult population, one of the Europe 2020 objectives.
This provision is regulated by Ordinance No 242/2012, 10 August, which defines the organisation, operation and assessment of science-humanities courses in recurrent education. Decree-Law No 42/2012, 22 February, later incorporated into the above-mentioned Ordinance, which amended the system of final grading in upper secondary education for science-humanities courses in recurrent education for students who wish to continue their studies, without affecting the status of those who only intend to complete their upper secondary education. Like this, students in both recurrent and regular education will be on an equal footing for further study.
Recurrent upper secondary distance learning
The main focus of recurrent distance learning (Ensino Secundário Recorrente à Distância - ESRaD), regulated by Ordinance No 254/2016, 26 September, and Dispatch No 11978/2016, 7 October, is responding to the educational needs of students who do not have access to public schools with recurrent upper secondary education due to place of residence or work and for reasons of extending compulsory education. It is designed for those over 18 who have not completed upper secondary education.
The references for ESRaD curricular matrices are those of science-humanities courses such as sciences and technologies, socioeconomic sciences, languages and humanities and visual arts contained in the annexes I to IV of Ordinance No 242/2012, 10 August, that defines the organisation and operation of the recurrent upper secondary scientific-humanistic courses.
ESRaD is modular and uses b-learning method, including face-to-face and distance sessions, synchronous and asynchronous. This organisation allows any candidate, resident in Portugal or abroad, to access this provision.
Young + Digital programme
Created via Ordinance No 250-A/2020, 23 October, the “Young + Digital” ("Jovem + Digital") programme focusses on teaching digital skills.
This programme seeks to improve the match between vocational training and the real needs of the job market, as well as to boost young adults’ vocational skills to improve their employability.
This programme is designed for young adults between the ages of 18 and 35, registered as unemployed with the Institute of Employment and Vocational Training and with an upper secondary or higher-level qualification.
Young adults in this age group may also participate in this programme and also registered as unemployed provided that:
a) they have not completed the final year of their upper secondary education or
b) are undertaking upper secondary level RVCC processes.
In the case of the latter, it is the Qualifica Centres’ duty to define the most appropriate route to conclude the upper secondary level qualification, as well as coordination with training bodies to successfully combine training and its completion.
The digital training courses are made up National Qualifications Catalogue technological component short training units, with a maximum duration of 350 hours.
The training courses can be taught face-to-face or distance, by the following bodies:
a) network of Institute of Employment and Vocational Training centres
b) training bodies certified by the Directorate-General of Employment and Labour Relations
c) other training bodies, via a cooperation agreement with the IEFP.
The conclusion of the training course leads to a qualification certificate. If the training course has not been completed, a partial qualification certificate is issued.
Upper secondary education completion pathways
The upper secondary education completion pathways are alternatives created by Decree-Law No 357/2007, 29 October, for those who attended upper secondary courses (without successful completion) whose curricula are now extinct.
These routes are implemented according to mechanisms that replace missing subjects from original courses via exams for upper secondary science-humanities courses or vocational courses in force, or via short National Qualifications Catalogue training units (Catálogo Nacional de Qualificações - CNQ).
Upper secondary education completion pathways are designed for adults aged 18 years old or over who have yet to complete a maximum of six subjects/year of the upper secondary level courses they attended, whose curricula were in force between 1972/1973 and 2003/04. Such extinct curricula match the following type of courses and associated regulations:
- Complementary high school and technical courses - Decree-Law No 47587/67, 10 March
- Complementary courses organised by study area - Legislative Order No 140-A/78, 22 June, and the following
- Specialised artistic courses - Decree-Law No 310/83, 1 July and Decree-Law No 344/90, 2 November
- Technical-vocational courses - Legislative Order No 194-A/83, 21 October, and the following
- Vocational courses - Decree-Law No 26/89, 21 January, Decree-Law No 70/93, 10 March and Decree-Law No 4/98, 8 January
- General courses and technological courses - Decree-Law No 286/89, 29 August, and
- General courses, technical courses, technological courses and specialised artistic courses in recurrent education - Decree-Law No 74/91, 9 February
Adults have completed upper secondary education when they have:
a) passed school level or national exams relating to subjects that were considered substitutes for missing subjects in the syllabus of their original course, or,
b) passed CNQ short training units that were considered substitutes for missing subjects in the syllabus of their original course
Completion of upper secondary education via science-humanities course exams or via short training units, substituting missing subjects on their original course, confers a level 3 qualification in the National Qualifications Framework (QNQ).
Completion of upper secondary education via vocational course exams when the course provides a professional qualification, substituting the missing subjects, confers a level 4 qualification in the QNQ.