Definition of target group(s)
Pursuant to the laws, the group of pupils at the risk of drop-out include those pupils
whose average study result in the concerned academic year is below the average or it shows a deterioration of at least 1.1 compared to the average result in the previous academic year, and in the case of the concerned pupil complex, system-level pedagogical measures have to be taken.
Disadvantaged children/pupils are those who are eligible to a regular child protection allowance, have come of age, and come under one of the following conditions:
- low school attainment level of the parent
- the low employment level of the parent
- insufficient dwelling environment or conditions of the child
Children/pupils with multiple disadvantages:
- those who are eligible to a regular child protection allowance, have come of age, and come under at least two of the conditions determined for the disadvantaged, situation;
- children/pupils in public care,
- pupils and young adults in student status who are in after-care.
Specific support measures
Support measures for pupils at the risk of drop-out and disadvantaged, multiply disadvantaged children
Sure Start Centres
Sure Start Children Centres operate in the most disadvantaged micro-regions of Hungary. In these Children Centres, operating as a part of cross-sectorial micro-regional programmes, experts help children at the earliest possible age to overcome disadvantages. They help children with kindergarten and school life as well as their school performance, and they also offer assistance in job seeking for the parents.
Early indication and support system for pupils at the risk of drop-out
Based on the warning signs identified with the help of the support system, as well as with the recommendation of the pedagogical-professional service, the educational institution applies pedagogical measures within the frame of which the progress of the pupil is promoted by means of modern, pupil-centred educational tools and cooperation supporting the success of the school, with special attention paid to evolving abilities and skills, and activities to support equal opportunities.
The data of the early indication system operated by the Educational Authority include the summarized data by headcount of the pupils at the risk of drop-out for whom pedagogical support is justified for the following reasons:
a) whose average study result does not reach the average (3), if the pupil participates in basic level education, or the 2.5 level, if the pupil participates in secondary level education, or if the pupil shows a deterioration of at least 1.1 in a term;
b) who receive a fail (1) mark in one or more subjects at mid-year or at the end of school-year;
c) who receive a bad (2) mark at mid-year or at the end of school-year when their conduct is evaluated and assessed;
d) who receive a negligent (2) mark at mid-year or at the end of school-year when their diligence is evaluated and assessed;
e) who are obliged to repeat the school-year;
f) who have an unjustified absence exceeding 50 lessons and other classes for the data supply period;
g) who are private pupils at the request of the parent, or whose private pupil classification is in progress at the request of the parent;
h) who are refugees, under protection or seeking asylum pursuant to Act LXXX of 2007 on the right of sanctuary;
I) who are considered children at risk pursuant to the Act on the Protection of Children;
j) or who are placed or taken into education on a temporary basis.
k) pupils for whom at least two of the following conditions are valid:
ka) who have a justified absence exceeding 100 lessons and other classes for the data supply period,
kb) are pupils requiring special attention, excluding exceptionally gifted pupils,
kc) receive regular child protection allowance,
kd) participate in primary school education and over the age of 16,
ke) enter secondary education over the age of 16.
Arany János Programmes
Arany János Talent Fostering Programme: aims at enabling disadvantaged pupils within the frame of the coordinated talent fostering programme of the dormitory and secondary school to start and accomplish upper secondary education and then preferably enter higher education.
Arany János Dormitory Programme: is based on the cooperation of schools and dormitories, developing key competences to prepare disadvantaged pupils for starting and accomplishing upper secondary education and enter higher education or the labour market.
The aim of Dobbantó (Springboard) Programme is to provide an opportunity for young people at age 15 to 25 with learning and behavioural difficulties, who lag in the school system or have been already dropped out to find a successful individual life path that leads back to the world of education or work, based on vocational school training.
"For the Road" (Útravaló) Scholarship Programme
The equal opportunity “For the Road” (Útravaló) Scholarship Programme was started in 2006 from central budget support for disadvantaged and multiply disadvantaged pupils from grade 7 to help them be admitted to secondary education and support their successful further studies and ease its burdens. Applications will be evaluated in the following order, and with the following taken into account:
a) the applicant is multiply disadvantaged, taken under protection, temporarily placed in public care, or receives after-care
b) the applicant lives in a favoured municipality or favoured district;
c) the amount of monthly salary per person in the applicant’s household is lower than that of other applicants;
d) the number of persons living in the same household as the applicant is lower than that of other applicants;
In the field of public education three equal opportunity sub-programmes are operated:
- 'Road to upper secondary school', which is a scholarship programme, whose aim is to prepare the participating pupils for further studies in a secondary school that gives secondary school leaving certificate.
- 'Road to upper secondary school leaving examination', which is a scholarship programme, whose aim is to support the participating pupils to successfully complete secondary education.
- 'Road to vocational qualification', which is a scholarship programme, whose aim is to help vocational school pupils’ successful studies, as well as to help them overcome their difficulties.
The programme is based on the cooperation of the mentor and pupil, who submit the application together. In addition to the scholarship that depends on the study results, pupils also receive a regular mentoring of at least 2 hours weekly.
‘Tanoda’ learning centres, implemented with the help of EU sources, operated by NGOs and churches, offer non-formal and informal learning and connect these to formal education. The aim of the ‘Tanoda’ programme is to support the school progress of disadvantaged, multiply disadvantaged and migrant pupils who are in grades 5-12 or younger. The target groups of certain ‘Tanodas’ are migrant children and young people living at the stations to accept refugees, or in the homes of underage children without attendants.
Support measures for migrant children, pupils
Unfinished studies started abroad can be continued in the school system of Hungarian public education. The decision on the recognition of prior learning and the admission of pupil shall be made by the head of school.
The National Core Curriculum includes the acquisition of intercultural knowledge; this is prescribed within the frame of communication in a foreign language, as well as social and civil competences. According to the Core Curriculum, a positive attitude includes respect to the variety of cultures, as well as interest in and curiosity about languages and communication among the cultures.
The aims to be implemented between 2014 and 2020 of the Migration Strategy accepted in 2013 include among others strengthening intercultural education in public education, with emphasis on the theoretical and practical issues of education, for which the preparation of needs surveys, as well as the elaboration, development and operation of targeted programmes, study materials and teaching-learning methods are scheduled. It intends to encourage a more intensive cooperation in the field of teacher training and in-service teacher training in order to implement a teacher’s role that is more fitting to intercultural challenges, as well as to train teachers who are prepared for teaching Hungarian as a foreign language.