For education pre-primary level to tertiary professional level, the local level is represented by the municipalities. They have primarily self-governing competencies. Some of the bigger municipalities have also delegated powers to carry out state administration. The institutional level is represented by schools and school facilities, which are as a rule independent legal entities.
Higher education institutions (vysoké školy) are generally autonomous, independent legal entities. The role of municipalities is not defined. development, or innovation
Administration and governance at local level
The local level is represented by the municipality, which is the basic element of self-government in education from the pre-primary to the tertiary professional level (including the related school services). The municipalities with extended powers have delegated powers to carry out some state administration tasks.
The municipalities can also ensure the functioning of services aimed at the youngest children which are not within the direct responsibility of the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports (e.g. children's groups – dětské skupiny).
In the area of higher education, the role of municipalities is not specified.
Local administration and governance in early childhood and school education
The responsibilities of municipalities to schools are regulated by the Education Act.
Self-governing competence of the municipality
The municipality is obliged to create conditions for compulsory school attendance. The municipality is also obliged to ensure the conditions for pre-primary education of children preferentially admitted to nursery schools (i.e. children who reach at least 3 years of age at the beginning of the school year). For these purposes, it establishes nursery and basic schools, or provides education in schools established by another municipality or union of municipalities.
The municipality (or union of municipalities) runs:
- nursery schools (mateřské školy)
- basic schools (základní školy)
- nursery and basic schools teaching in the language of an ethnic minority if a council for ethnic minorities is established in the municipality
- their canteens
These different schools can be established as a single legal entity.
Apart from this, the municipality can establish:
- basic art schools (základní umělecké školy)
- school facilities for personal interests education (školská zařízení pro zájmové vzdělávání) such as after-school centres (školní družiny) for pupils at ISCED 1 level or school clubs (školní kluby) for pupils at ISCED 2 level
- school facilities established for a specific purpose (školská účelová zařízení) such as swimming schools, school farms, or centres of practical education
- should there be a reason and resources, then the municipality can also establish schools which would otherwise be established by the region – upper secondary schools (střední školy) or possibly tertiary professional schools (vyšší odborné školy) – or by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports
A municipality's basic competences and obligations
- It covers the investment and non-investment expenditures of institutions which it runs, with the exception of direct educational non-investment costs (wage costs, teaching aids, textbooks, and others) that are covered by the state, although it can contribute to these costs.
- According to the Act on Municipalities, it ensures that there is a harmony between the development of education and school services and the interests of citizens of the municipality, the needs of the labour market, demographic development and the development of its territory, and the accessibility of education and school services according to local conditions.
- It appoints and dismisses the heads of the schools that it establishes (according to the Act on Municipalities, this is done by the municipal council, or the mayor or local authority if council is not elected in the municipality).
- It sets the school districts of catchment nursery and basic schools and it transfers to these schools the list of children living in their catchment areas who are obliged to start their compulsory school attendance / compulsory pre-primary education in the given year.
- It establishes a school council in a school run by it, and nominates one third of its members; thus it is involved in some decision-making processes in the school.
- On the basis of the results of the inspection activities of the Czech School Inspectorate, it decides on measures in the schools and school facilities run by it.
State administration performed by municipalities with extended powers
Municipal authorities of municipalities with extended powers perform state administration (in the delegated powers) toward schools established by municipalities or unions of municipalities in their district. It is mainly a proposal for the breakdown of funds and the verification of decisive data.
Local administration and governance in tertiary education
Tertiary professional education
The role of municipalities regarding tertiary professional schools (vyšší odborné školy) is stipulated by the Education Act. The municipality (or union of municipalities) may establish or close down tertiary professional schools and school facilities. A school can only be established if the municipality provides proof that there are sufficient financial, material, and human resources for the operation of the institution. The proof is provided to the body which administers the Register of Schools and School Facilities, in this case the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports. The role of the municipality in assuring their activity is similar to the responsibilities of municipalities towards upper secondary schools (střední školy).
Higher Education Institutions
The Higher Education Act does not specify the role of municipalities but representatives of the regional self-governing authorities (and of a municipality as well) are usually also members of the board of trustees of public higher education institutions (vysoké školy).
Administration and governance at institutional level
The status of institutions from the pre-primary to the tertiary professional level established by the self-governing territorial units and set up under the Education Act differs substantially from the status of tertiary education institutions under the Higher Education Act.
Institutional administration and governance in early childhood and school education
According to the Education Act, all schools from nursery schools (mateřské školy) to tertiary professional schools (vyšší odborné školy), except for some state schools, have the status of independent legal entities and thus have a higher degree of autonomy. A legal entity enters legal relations under its own name and bears the responsibility for them.
The status of schools as legal entities enables:
- greater autonomy of the school head in decision-making regarding financial matters;
- responsible management of the school property to the extent determined by the founder in the deed of establishment;
- independent decision making by the school head in labour affairs;
- the possible development of additional school activities and handling their own profit or loss;
- the keeping of their own accounts.
The school head is responsible for the management of a school (or a school facility). The parents, pupils of age, education staff, and the organising body (in the case of public schools, i.e. the municipality or the region) can take part in the management of a school via the school council (školská rada).
Public and state schools, i.e. schools founded by ministries or territorial self-government bodies, have the legal form of:
- subsidised organisations (příspěvková organizace) if they are established by the region, municipality, or the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports, in case of nursery schools and relevant school canteens also by other ministries;
- school legal entities (školská právnická osoba, see below) if they are established by the region, municipality, or the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports;
- organisational units of the state (organizační složka státu) or are their component part if they are run by the Ministry of Defence, Ministry of the Interior, or Ministry of Justice
The most frequent form a public school takes is that of a subsidised organisation. Schools established in this legal form administer property transferred to them by the organising body (state, region, or municipality), receive resources from it for their activity, and are usually non-profit-making.
Denominational schools, i.e. schools run by church or religious associations, use the legal form of school legal entities. Since 2005, the school legal entity has had the legal form of a non-profit organisation whose activity is limited to the educational sphere.
Private schools are schools established by legal entities other than those mentioned above or by natural persons. Legal forms are generally covered by the Act on Commercial Corporations, e.g. a Limited Liability Company (společnost s ručením omezeným), joint-stock company (akciová společnost), public trading companies (veřejné obchodní společnosti) etc. They can also take the form of a school legal entity (školská právnická osoba) as defined by the Education Act or possibly the form of a public benefit corporation (obecně prospěšná společnost) (corporations established before 2014), registered association (zapsaný spolek) or registered institute (zapsaný ústav) (according to the Civil Code).
The necessary condition for the activities of public, denominational, and private schools is to be recorded in the Register of Schools and Schools Facilities (and, if the schools take the legal form of a school legal entity, also in the Register of School Legal Entities). The Education Act enables various schools and school facilities under one organising body to function under one directorate e.g. a joint directorate of a nursery school and basic school (základní škola) or upper secondary school (střední škola) and tertiary professional school. During 2003, many schools were merged to reduce their size and make them more effective and economical. Current demographic development is leading towards more mergers even today.
Schools and school facilities are obliged to administer documentation dealing with records on children/pupils/students, known as the Register of Pupils (školní matrika), and submit the data to the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports.
The school head is responsible for the management of a school. In the area of state administration, the school head can make decision on the rights and responsibilities of children, pupils, students, and parents or guardians.
The school council (školská rada) is a body allowing parents, students of full legal age, school employees, citizens, and other persons to be involved in the administration of the school. It is established by a school's organising body of a basic school (základní škola), an upper secondary school (střední školy), a conservatoire (konzervatoř), and a tertiary professional school (vyšší odborná škola). At the same time, it specifies the number of its members and issues rules for their election. In private and denominational schools, the function of the organising body is fulfilled by the school head. If a legal entity manages more than one such school, only one school council need be established.
One third of the members are appointed by the school's organising body, one third is elected by teachers, and one third is elected by the pupils or their parents. The period they hold office for is three years. The school head may not be a member but must take part in meetings if invited by the chairperson and must provide any documents requested for discussion. The school head assures the proper course of elections. The school council meets at least twice a year.
According to the Education Act, the school council:
- approves the school's annual report on the activity of a school;
- discusses the budget and proposes measures for improving money management;
- gives its opinion on the proposed school education programmes and their implementation;
- approves rules for evaluating the results of the pupils' education at basic school, upper secondary school and conservatoire;
- approves the School Code (školní řád) and Scholarship Rules (stipendijní řád) at upper secondary schools, tertiary professional schools and conservatoires, and proposes amendments to these;
- participates in drawing up strategic objectives for school development;
- discusses the inspection reports of the Czech School Inspectorate;
- makes suggestions and delivers notifications to the head teacher, founder state bodies involved in the school system, and other state administrative bodies, including proposals for recalling a head teacher;
- makes suggestions to advertise competitive recruitment for the post of the school head.
A pedagogical council (pedagogická rada) is established by a school head as his/her advisory body and includes all the members of the teaching staff. The school head discusses with them all fundamental educational documents and measures concerning the educational activities of the school. The council has no decision-making power; however, its opinions are taken into account by the school head. The council has both regular meetings and ad hoc ones to deal with particular educational issues. Larger schools traditionally also have subject boards (předmětové komise).
Self-governing bodies of pupils and students
Pupils and students are entitled to establish self-governing bodies to elect and be elected to such bodies, to work for them and through them contact the school head. The bodies have no decision-making powers; however, the school head is obliged to deal with the opinions and comments of such self-governing bodies.
Pupils' parents often establish independent parents' associations. These are usually associations according to the Civil Code which help to ensure and financially support various school events. These associations can also participate in passing information between the school management and parents.
Register of Pupils
Schools and school facilities are obliged to administer documentation dealing with records on children/pupils/students (hereafter pupils), known as the Register of Pupils (školní matrika). This data is further administered by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports, for statistical purposes and for the purposes of fulfilling other duties assigned to the Ministry of Education by the Education Act. The manner of keeping the Register of Pupils and the form and deadlines for the transfer of data from the register are determined by Decree on Administration of Documentation of Schools.
The Register of Pupils contains data on a pupil as follows:
- name and surname, birth certificate number (the birth date if the pupil did not receive one), citizenship, birthplace, and the place of permanent residence (the place of residence on the territory of Czechia according to the type of the stay of a foreigner or place of residence abroad if the pupil does not reside on the territory of Czechia)
- data on previous education, including the educational level attained
- the field, form, and duration of education, if secondary or tertiary professional schools are concerned
- the date of commencement of education in the school
- data on the process and results of education in the school and language of instruction
- data on any disability of the pupil, data on supporting measures provided to the pupil by the school, and conclusions of examinations mentioned on the recommendation of the school guidance facility (data on the disability of a child is anonymous)
- data on health capacity for education and on health difficulties that could have an impact on the educational process
- the date of completion of education in the school; data on the examination that completed the education in the secondary or tertiary professional school
- the name and surname of the parent or guardian, the place of permanent residence (domicile if he/she does not have permanent residence on the territory of the Czechia), an address for delivering documents, and contact telephone number.
Similar data are included also in Register of Pupils of a school facility.
Schools and school facilities pass on the data of documentation and Register of Pupils to the Ministry of Education (or to a legal entity established by it). Schools and school facilities that are not established by the Ministry of Education pass on this data in the form of statistical information to the regional authority, and in the case of schools and school facilities established by municipalities also to the authority of the municipalities with extended powers.
Involvement of pupils and parents and their rights and obligations
The involvement of pupils, students, and parents in school management and their rights and responsibilities are stipulated by the Education Act and in more detail in the School Code (školní řád) of individual schools, issued by the school head in the School Code and approved by the school council. The conditions for the cooperation of schools with parents can be set by the framework education programmes and specified in detail in the school education programme. The communication with parents is also monitored by the Czech School Inspectorate, which sets the evaluation criteria for this area.
Pupils and students
Pupils and students are entitled to:
- education and school services according to the Education Act;
- information on the course and results of their education;
- elect and be elected to the school council (školská rada), if they are of legal age;
- establish, within the school, self-governing bodies of pupils and students, to elect and be elected to such bodies;
- express their opinions on all decisions concerning matters of substance relating to their education, whilst their opinions must be considered with their age and the level of their development being taken into account;
- information and guidance from the school (or school facility) in matters concerning education based on the Education Act.
Pupils and students are obliged to:
- duly attend the school or school facility and educate themselves properly;
- follow the School Code (školní řád) or internal Rules of Order (vnitřní řád) and regulations and instructions of the school or school facility concerning health protection and safety;
- respect instructions given by the education staff of schools or school facilities.
Pupils and students of legal age are further obliged to:
- inform the school or school facility on any change in their health condition, health problems, or other serious facts which could affect the course of their education;
- justify their absence from school lessons in compliance with the conditions set out in the School Code;
- report to the school and school facility the data for the Register of Pupils (školní matrika, under Section 28, paragraphs 2 and 3 of the Education Act) and other data essential for the course of their education or safety and any changes in such data.
Under the Education Act, the parents or guardians of children and minor pupils are entitled to:
- information on the course and results of education (this right is also guaranteed to the parents of adult pupils or to persons who act as the parents or guardians of such pupils;
- elect and be elected to the school council;
- express their opinions on all decisions concerning essential matters concerning education;
- information and advisory assistance from the school or school facility in issues concerning education.
Parents or guardians of children and minor pupils are obliged to:
- ensure that the child or pupil duly attends the school or the school facility (especially when fulfilling the compulsory pre-primary education and compulsory school attendance);
- at the request of the school head or the head of the school facility, participate personally in discussing serious matters concerning the education of a child or a pupil;
- inform the school and the school facility on changes in the health and health problems of a child or a pupil or other serious facts that could affect the course of education;
- justify the absence of a child or a pupil from school lessons in compliance with the conditions set out in the School Code;
- give the school or school facility data for the Register of Pupils (under Article 28, para. 2 and 3 of the Education Act) and other data which is essential for the course of the education or the safety of a child or a pupil, including any changes in such data.
Parents often establish school independent parents' associations.
Institutional administration and governance in tertiary education
Institutional administration and governance in tertiary professional education
The administration of tertiary professional schools (vyšší odborné školy) is governed by the Education Act, similarly to the schools providing lower levels of education. The involvement of students and the communication with different players are also analogous to lower levels. Unlike other schools; however, tertiary professional schools have the power to create their own education programmes, which are subject to accreditation by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports though.
Institutional administration and governance in higher education
The system of higher education is based on the autonomy of institutions in the area of education, science, and research and to some extent on managing the funds that are allocated. Higher education institutions have assets that they use for educational, scientific, and other activities. Higher education institutions (vysoké školy) enjoy a high degree of autonomy and this is reflected in their bodies as defined by the Higher Education Act.
The higher education institutions have guaranteed academic freedom and academic rights. These are as follows:
- freedom of scientific, research, and artistic work, and freedom to publish their results;
- freedom of instruction, consisting primarily of openness to different scientific ideas, scientific and research methods, and artistic styles;
- the right to study, which includes a free choice of the field of study within study programmes and the freedom to express individual opinions during instruction;
- the right of the academic community's members to elect representative academic bodies;
- the right to use academic insignia and to perform academic ceremonies.
All higher education institutions, not only public ones, are forbidden to set up or organise political parties and political movements.
The level of self-governance and how it relates to the state administration differ among public, state, or private higher education institutions. The self-governing powers, bodies and internal regulations of public higher education institutions are described in detail below. State higher education institutions, i.e., the University of Defense and the Police Academy, provide specialists in these two fields and comply with their requirements. However, they establish same bodies as public schools (with the exception of the board of trustees) and also issue same internal regulations (with the exception of the internal wage regulations). A separate section is devoted to private schools.
For public higher education institutions, self-government primarily includes:
- decisions on internal organisation
- setting the number of students admitted, admission requirements, and decision making in the admission procedure
- the formulation and implementation of study programmes
- quality assurance of education and creative and related activities and internal quality evaluation of a higher education institution
- the organisation of studies
- decision making on students' rights and obligations
- orientation and organisation of scientific and other creative activities
- the labour-legal relationship and setting the number of academic staff and other employees
- the habilitation procedure and procedure for appointing a professor
- collaboration with other higher education institutions and foreign relations
- establishing self-governing academic bodies
- assets management
- setting the level of fees associated with studies
- setting the level of fees relating to the habilitation procedure and procedure for appointing a professor
Bodies of a public higher education institution
The self-governing bodies of a public higher education institution consist of:
- an academic senate (akademický senát)
- a rector (rektor)
- an scientific council or artistic board (vědecká rada or umělecká rada); an academic board (akademická rada) at the non-university type of higher education institution
- a internal evaluation board, if established
- a disciplinary commission (disciplinární komise)
Other bodies include:
- a board of trustees (správní rada)
- a quaestor/bursar (kvestor)
The academic senate of a public higher education institution is a self-governing academic body whose members are elected from among the members of the academic community (i.e. from students and academics) by a direct vote with a secret ballot. It has at least 11 members. Students may form between one third and one half of its members. The number of the senate members, the way they are elected, and the bodies within the senate and their activities are determined by the internal regulations of each public higher education institution, particularly the electoral code of the senate and rules of procedure. Members of the senate cannot hold the post of a rector, a prorector, a quaestor, a dean or subdean, a faculty secretary, or school director. The term of office for individual senate members is for a maximum of three years and meetings of the senate are public. The academic senate passes resolutions through a secret vote on issues listed in the Higher Education Act; in other cases, the method of voting is set out in the internal regulations.
The academic senate is involved:
- in decisions on the establishment, merger, division, and abolition of the higher education institution's constituent parts;
- in approving internal regulations of the institution and its constituent parts;
- in approving the budget and controlling the finances of the institution;
- in approving annual reports on the activities and the management of the institution's resources;
- in approving the evaluation of the institution's activities;
- in approving reports on internal quality evaluation of the education, creativity, and associated activities of the school;
- in giving the rector prior consent for appointing and dismissing members of the scientific board, internal evaluation board of the school, or a disciplinary commission;
- in approving admission requirements to study programmes that are not organised at faculties;
- in approving proposals for the appointment of a rector or recommending their dismissal;
- in approving the strategic plan of educational and creative activities and its annual implementation;
- on the rector's proposal, cancelling an internal regulation, decision, or other act of a body, or suspending it if it is in contradiction of the special regulations or internal regulations of the public higher education institution;
- in expressing opinions on the rector's intention to appoint or dismiss their deputy;
- in expressing opinions on proposals for study programmes that are not organised in faculties;
- in expressing opinions on legal procedures requiring the assent of the board of trustees;
- in expressing opinions on suggestions and opinions of the board of trustees.
A public higher education institution is headed by a rector (rektor), who decides and acts on the affairs of the institution. In cases when a special regulation presupposes the activity of a statutory body, the responsibility for the body and its activities lies with the rector. The rector is appointed and dismissed by the President of the Republic on the recommendation of the academic senate submitted through the Minister of Education. The same person may only occupy the office of a rector for two consecutive four-year periods. The rector may appoint a vice-rector to act on their behalf in certain matters. Vice-rectors (prorektoři) are nominated and dismissed by the rector.
The scientific board of a public higher education institution (art board at a higher education institution that carries out study programmes in an art area, academic board at non-universities). Members of the scientific board are selected from among prominent personalities in the fields in which the higher education institution performs educational and creative activities. At least one third of the members are selected from external staff outside the academic community of the higher education institution. Members of the scientific board are appointed and dismissed by the rector, who is the chairperson of the board. The term of office of board members is determined in the internal regulations of the institution.
- discusses the strategic plan of the higher education institution;
- approves study programmes1);
- approves the intention to present an application for institutional accreditation in a field of education (extension to another field of education);
- approves the intention to present an application for the accreditation of a study programme (extension to another field or prolongation of accreditation);
- approves the intention to submit an application for the accreditation of a habilitation procedure or procedure for the appointment of a professor1);
- approves the intention to terminate institutional accreditation or terminate a study programme or approves the intention to terminate the accreditation of the habilitation procedure or procedure for the appointment of a professor;
- executes the procedure for the appointment of a professor and habilitation procedure;
- discusses proposals for rules for the quality assurance system and internal quality evaluation of the educational and creative activity and associated activities of a public higher education institution
- discusses the rector's intention to dismiss or appoint members of the internal evaluation board (if established);
- discusses proposals for reports on the internal quality evaluation of the educational, creative, and associated activities of a higher education institution;
- discusses the draft annual report on the higher education institution's activity before presenting it to the academic senate.
The competence of an scientific board marked 1) can be entrusted wholly or partially to a faculty's internal evaluation board or a faculty's scientific board.
Internal evaluation board
The internal evaluation board is a newly-established self-governing body of the institution responsible for the internal quality assurance evaluation of the school. The chairperson of the Internal Evaluation Board is the rector. He/she appoints a vice-chairperson, from the staff of a higher education institution who are professors (profesor) or associated professors (docent). A member of the Board is the chairperson of the Academic Senate. Other members are appointed by the rector: from those one third on the proposal of Scientific Board and one third on the proposal of the Academic Senate, whereas one member is always appointed from the students of the public higher education institution. The rector has to give reasons for non-appointment of the proposed member of the Board. An internal regulation of the higher education institution sets the term of office of the vice-chairperson and other members of the Board.
Internal evaluation board:
- It approves the draft rules of the internal quality assurance system for the educational, creative, and associated activities of a public higher education institution.
- It controls the course of the internal quality assurance system for the educational, creative, and associated activities of the school.
- It draws up a report on the internal quality assurance system of the school and its supplements.
- It keeps records on the internal quality assurance system for the educational, creative, and associated activities of the school.
- It performs other activities laid down by the statute of the public higher education institution, e.g. one or more of the following responsibilities: it approves the intention to submit an accreditation request for study programmes or the intention to submit a request for accreditation of the procedure for the appointment of a professor; the school can also approve study programmes as suggested by the scientific board or art board of the faculty. (Under the Higher Education Act these responsibilities fall within the competence of the scientific board or they may be transferred to the competence of the faculty scientific boards).
The disciplinary commission of a public higher education institution discusses disciplinary transgressions of students if they are not enrolled at any of its faculties (if they are enrolled at a faculty, their transgressions are subject to proceedings in the relevant faculty). Its chairperson and members from the ranks of the academic community are appointed by the rector (one half of the members are students). The term of office of the members of the disciplinary commission is for a maximum of two years.
Board of trustees
Members of the board of trustees of a higher education institution are appointed and dismissed by the Minister of Education after consultation with the rector so that they provide adequate representation of the public, professional chambers, employers, or other persons and organisations that support or use the educational and creative activities of higher education institutions or the representatives of the country self-government and state administration and the graduates of the school. The members of the board of trustees may not be employees of their own public school. The term of office of a member of the board of trustees is six years. A meeting of the board shall be convened and chaired by its chairperson. The board's negotiations are regulated by its statute as approved by the Minister of Education.
The public higher education institution's board of trustees ensures that the institution adheres to the aims for which it was founded and that the public interest is taken account of in its existing and future projects. Apart from this, the board of trustees gives its written assent: to all legal procedures concerning the institution's management of fixed and, partially, also movable assets; to legal procedures by which the institution aims to acquire a liability or a right of pre-emption; to legal procedures by which the institution aims to establish, cancel, or change another legal entity; and on monetary and non-monetary investments in these or other legal entities.
After approval by the academic senate, the board of trustees of a public higher education institution discusses a report on the internal quality evaluation and creative and associated activities of the public higher education institution and supplements to this report and discusses an annual report on the activity and a report on the management of resources of the public higher education institution.
After approval by the academic senate, the board of trustees of a public higher education institution approves its budget and its strategic plan. If the board of trustees of the public higher education institution does not accept the draft budget or strategic plan, the board will return it to the academic senate for fresh discussion along with the reasons for its rejection. In this case the original draft is approved without having to be newly discussed if at least three fifths of the members of the senate vote for it. If the senate agrees with the board's comments, it approves it by a simple majority.
All documents are submitted to the board by the rector.
The quaestor is in charge of the management of resources and internal administration of a public higher education institution. He/she is appointed and dismissed by the rector, who also determines when and to what extent the quaestor represents the institution.
Internal regulations of the public higher education institution
Self-governing bodies of a public higher education institution are governed in their activities by general regulations, but they also have their own internal regulations. The internal regulations of a public higher education institution are subject to registration, which is carried out by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports at the request of the rector. If any discrepancies or conflicts with legal provisions are discovered during this process, the Ministry calls on the relevant higher education institution to redress such inconsistencies within an appropriate time limit.
The regulations include:
- a statute
- the electoral code for the academic senate
- standing orders for the academic senate
- internal wage regulations
- standing orders for the scientific board
- study and examination code
- scholarship code
- regulations concerning recruitment proceedings associated with the filling of academic posts
- the rules of the quality assurance system, educational, creative, and associated activities, and the internal quality evaluation of the educational, creative, and associated activities of the public higher education institution
- or other regulations if stipulated by the statute of the school
The most important of the internal regulations is the statute, which contains in particular:
- the name, address, and type of the higher education institution
- the legal predecessor
- framework admission requirements and application procedures
- admission requirements for foreign applicants
- the organisational structure of the institution
- provisions concerning fees charged for studies
- rules for the use of academic insignia and for the performance of academic ceremonies
- rules for the management of resources
Structure of the public higher education institution
If a public higher education institution is divided into institutional parts, then there is a division of powers between the institution as a whole and these constituent parts.
A public higher education institution is divided into:
- faculties (fakulty)
higher education institutes (vysokoškolské ústavy)
- workplaces for creative work (pracoviště pro tvůrčí činnost)
- establishments serving various cultural and sporting purposes or providing accommodation and meals for the academic community or assuring the operation of the institution
- specialised units ensuring the provision of some study programmes or some of the institution's operations, etc.
The most common institutional part of a public higher education institution is a faculty.
Its self-governing academic bodies are:
- the faculty's academic senate (akademický senát fakulty)
- the dean (děkan), who may be represented by his/her deputy (proděkan)
- a faculty scientific board (vědecká rada fakulty)
- a faculty disciplinary commission (disciplinární komise fakulty)
A second body is the secretariat (tajemník).
The tasks of these bodies are similar to those of the academic senate of the institution, the rector, the scientific board of the institution, the disciplinary commission of the institution, and the quaestor. However, their responsibilities are limited to discussing and deciding upon faculty issues. Faculties do not appoint boards of trustees.
Scientific board of a faculty deals with the following activities:
- discusses a draft of the strategic plan of the faculty and a draft of annual implementation plan;
- approves proposals of study programmes which are to be carried out at the faculty, and passes them through the rector to the Scientific Board of the Higher Education Institution (or depending on the Statute of the Higher Education Institution to the Board for Internal Evaluation) for approval;
- proposes to the rector the intention to present an application for accreditation, extension of accreditation or prolongation of validity of accreditation of study programmes;
- proposes to the rector the intention to present an application for accreditation of habilitation procedure or procedures for appointment of a professor;
- and discusses other matters presented by the dean.
Amendment to the Act makes it possible for a higher education institution to entrust competences via its status to the scientific board of the faculty to deal with an application proposal for realisation of study programmes besides accredited educational areas; application for accreditation of habilitation procedure or procedure for appointment of a professor; and/or competences to internal approval of study programmes. The chairman of the scientific board of a faculty is the dean, who appoints and dismisses other members of the board.
The faculty has the right to act or make decisions on behalf of the public higher education institution when establishing its self-governing academic bodies, in matters concerning its internal structure, habilitation procedures and procedures for the appointment of professors, managing the funds allocated to it, and labour-legal relationships. The latter are discussed in advance with the rector of the institution; they may agree to limit the scope of the issues dealt with.
The faculty also has the right to act or make decisions on behalf of the public higher education institution to the extent specified by its statute or in matters concerning the formation and implementation of study programmes, the strategic plans for its creative activities, and foreign relations and the use of means thus obtained. The faculty's bodies can make decisions on other issues of the institution if its statute permits.
The matters falling within the faculty's competence are regulated by its internal regulations, including its statute, electoral code, and standing order of the academic senate, rules of procedure of the faculty scientific board, faculty disciplinary order, or other regulations if specified by the statute.
The higher education institute
A higher education institute may be an institutional part of a public higher education institution which deals with creative activities. The academic senate of a public higher education institution decides upon its establishment. It is headed by a director (ředitel) – appointed by the rector – who may appoint the institute's scientific board (artistic board).
The provision of some study programmes requires the setting up of specialised workplaces. These may include, for example, a higher education agricultural or forestry farm. Such establishments are subject to further legal regulations in addition to those of the Higher Education Act. In this context faculty hospitals can play an important role. They cooperate with the appropriate medical faculty, share clinics and institutes, and, as contributory organisations, they are run directly by the Ministry of Health. Besides providing health services, they are also engaged in research and development and conduct the practical training of doctors in cooperation with the medical faculty.
Communication with partners and the public at the institutional level
Early childhood and school education
Within the education system it is expected that central bodies and various other organisations, including companies, will provide schools with assistance in education and training, in updating educational content, and in ensuring the personnel and material conditions for their activities. Professional study visits and short internships of teachers in the technologically advanced workplaces of companies have become an important instrument for the improvement of the professional quality of schools. In return, schools may also provide or organise courses for the company's employees and they can also play an important role by participating in the National Qualification Framework.
The Framework Education Programme for Pre-primary Education stipulates that the nursery school (mateřská škola) cooperates with the organising body and other state administration and self-government bodies, with the nearest basic school, or other organisations nearby the nursery school and with experts providing assistance especially in solving individual educational problems of children.
According to the Framework Education Programme for Basic Education, basic schools (základní školy) consider, among other things, cooperation with all participants and partners in the educational process when creating conditions. Schools should have a functional and constantly updated system of information towards pupils, teachers, school management, pupils' legal representatives and school partners, and also between these particular actors in education. In the school education programme, schools are advised to state forms of cooperation with pupils' legal representatives and other social partners.
For upper secondary schools (střední školy) and conservatoires (konzervatoře) the Education Act directly stipulates that schools should make effort to cooperate with employers when creating the preconditions for exercising a profession or performing a work activity, if this is appropriate and possible with regard to the field of education. The school head may set up an advisory board of employers to work with employers. The cooperation is mainly such that schools:
- discuss school education programmes with employers;
- involve employers in the creation of conceptual plans for school development;
- ensure that practical training is carried out in accordance with this Act, partly also at workplaces of natural or legal persons authorised to activities related to the given field of education;
- enable the participation of an expert from practice within the theoretical vocational training at school;
- enable the participation of an expert from practice in the profile part of the Maturita examination;
- ensure, in cooperation with employers, further education and internships for pedagogical staff of theoretical and practical teaching.
More specific requirements are set by the framework education programmes of individual fields.
In general education, in addition to a functional and up-to-date information system for individual actors, the Framework Education Programme for Secondary General Education (gymnázia) lists among the conditions for education also a comprehensive support for school-related activities, which follow the instruction (Olympiads, sports and cultural competitions, international pupil exchange activities). As part of the development of pupils' talents, schools should cooperate with domestic and foreign professional and scientific workplaces, academic staff and other experts. In the school education programme, schools should describe cooperation with parents and other entities (school council, school guidance and counselling facilities, local and regional institutions, etc.).
In vocational education, cooperation with companies is developed with regard to regional and professional specifics. It is implemented on the basis of partnership agreements and contracts for the provision of professional practice for pupils. The characteristics of cooperation with the social partners of the schools are elaborated in their school education programmes. For exceptionally gifted pupils, the framework education programmes of some fields state as a form of support the possibility of learning in parallel in the form of internships at another school, including tertiary professional school (possibly at a higher education institution) or at professional workplaces, participating in study and other stays abroad, involving pupils in various projects (school and social partner projects), competitions and other activities developing pupils' talents.
The schools also cooperate with:
- organising bodies
- school guidance and counselling facilities and entities involved in career counselling
Tertiary professional schools
Tertiary professional schools (vyšší odborné školy) cooperate with various entities, as evidenced by the accreditation of the education programme. The application includes a proposal for natural or legal persons at whose workplaces professional practice will take place, data on the development of cooperation with professional practice, tertiary professional schools and higher education institutions and other legal entities, including foreign ones, characteristics of this cooperation and its scope and the justification of social needs of education programme, including any comments from professional associations and legal entities.
Higher education institutions
Cooperation with other higher education institutions (vysoké školy) and legal entities and foreign relations belong to the self-governing competence of the higher education institution.
According to the Higher Education Act, higher education institutions contribute to development at the national and regional level and cooperate with various levels of state administration and self-government, business and cultural sphere, develop international and especially European cooperation as an essential dimension of their activities, support joint projects with similar institutions abroad, mutual recognition of studies and certificates, exchange of academic staff and students. Cooperation with external entities is one of the areas on which the intentions and procedures of ensuring the quality of the activities of higher education institutions are based. Specifically, it may be cooperation and interconnections of the higher education institution with other higher education institutions, with public research institutions and other legal entities engaged in research, experimental development or innovation, with employers of higher education institutions graduates, with entrepreneurs operating in the industrial and commercial sphere, with business associations and other entities.
The university must meet the requirements for international cooperation and cooperation with professional practice specified in the Government Regulation on Standards for Accreditation in Higher Education:
- In the case of institutional accreditation, the requirements for the institutional environment stipulate that the higher education institutions creative activity is reflected in its educational activities, international activities and cooperation with practice, and national, regional, and international cooperation is reflected in its educational activities. At the same time, the higher education institutions have a document regulating its social responsibility in relation to the educational activities of the higher education institution and fulfils this responsibility.
- In the case of accreditation of a study programme, the higher education institution needs to develop cooperation with practice, taking into account the types and possible profiles of study programmes, especially in practical training, assigning Bachelor's, diploma or dissertation thesis and assigning advanced study thesis (rigorózní práce), awarding scholarships and involving experts from practice in education process. Furthermore, the higher education institution should communicate with professional chambers, professional associations, employers' organisations, or other experts from practice and find out their expectations and requirements for graduates of study programmes.