This chapter provides an overview of national reforms and policy developments since 2021.
The introduction of the chapter describes the overall education strategy and the key objectives across the whole education system. It also looks at how the education reform process is organised and who are the main actors in the decision-making process.
The section on ongoing reforms and policy developments groups reforms in the following broad thematic areas that largely correspond to education levels:
Early childhood education and care
VET and Adult learning
Transversal skills and Employability
Inside each thematic area, reforms are organised chronologically. The most recent reforms are described first.
Overall national education strategy and key objectives
During the last ten years, also in coherence with the objectives set at European level, attention has been given to the reduction of early leaving from education and training, to the full implementation of school autonomy, to the quality of education, to students' competences, to tackling social inequalities and to guaranteeing the right to study and equal opportunities to education and training to everyone.
The most recent reform in the education and training system is included in law no. 107 that was approved by the Parliament in July 2015. Law no. 107 regulates several aspects of the education system, in particular the autonomy of schools. The implementation of some dispositions of the law has taken place gradually through specific regulations.
Law 107 delegated the Government to adopt eight specific decrees on school education and ECEC. The final texts of the decrees were approved on 13 April 2017.
Overview of the education reform process and drivers
In general, reforms of the education and training system follow the procedures of all legislation as established by the Italian Constitution. The legislative procedure involves both the two Chambers of the Parliament: each bill, introduced to one of the Chambers, is examined by the relevant Commission and, afterwards, by the Chamber that votes the text for the final approval.
The Government can also act as legislator by issuing legislative decrees and law-decrees.
The Government issues legislative decrees according to principles, criteria and deadlines established by the Parliament that delegates the Government with a specific law.
The Government autonomously adopts law-decrees, under its own responsibility, in case of urgent matters requiring immediate intervention. In this case, the Parliament has 60 days to convert the decree into law, with or without amendments; otherwise the law-decree ceases its effects. Moreover, the Government applies and integrates laws through implementing regulations.
The main drivers in the educational sector are the Ministries responsible for each area of the education system.