Institutions, Level and Model of Training
Teachers within the framework of pre-school and school education have higher education and as well as administrative and pedagogical functions qualification. The professional qualification ‘teacher’ is acquired at higher schools, meeting the requirements of the Higher Education Law, which have received program accreditation in a professional field of higher education "Pedagogical Sciences" or in a professional field corresponding to a subject or module of school training and the Ordinance on Common State Requirements for Acquiring Teacher’s Professional Qualification.
A teaching position in a subject or module of professional training, for which there is no respective professional field in the Classifier of Higher Education Areas and Professional Fields, may also be held by persons without higher education and without professional qualification "teacher", if they have acquired the respective professional qualification under the conditions and by the order of the Vocational Education and Training Act. Teacher position in a subject or module of professional training, as well as of specialized training, in a subject Foreign language, except for English, Spanish, Italian, German, Russian and French, may also be held by persons with completed higher education in the respective specialty and without professional qualification "teacher".
A teaching position in sports training in sports schools may also be held by persons with completed higher education in the respective specialty and acquired professional qualification "coach" in the respective type of sport. The persons who hold a teaching position without professional qualification "teacher" in the above cases are pedagogical specialists and have the rights and obligations for the respective teaching position while holding it, as the school prepares and implements a plan for acquiring pedagogical competencies by the respective person.
The professional qualification "teacher", depending on the acquired competencies necessary for the exercise of the profession, is as follows:
- "children's teacher";
- "primary teacher";
- "teacher of ...";
- "resource teacher".
The training for acquiring the professional qualification "teacher" is conducted in regular, correspondent and distance form with duration of not less than one year. It includes theoretical and practical training. Theoretical training is carried out through compulsory, elective and facultative disciplines.
Professional qualification "teacher" can be acquired by:
- persons who are trained for acquiring higher education in specialties from professional fields according to the Classifier of the fields of higher education and the professional fields;
- persons who have acquired a degree of higher education and the respective and professional qualification.
The admission requirements for acquiring a pedagogical degree vary depending on the higher education institution, but typically include sitting an entry exam of the student's choice, or alternatively, applying using the grade from the state examination (Matura) after completing secondary education.
Curriculum, Level of Specialisation and Learning Outcomes
The admission requirements for acquiring a pedagogical degree vary depending on the higher education institution, but typically include sitting an entry exam of the student's choice, or alternatively, applying using the grade from the state examination (Matura) after completing secondary education.The Ordinance on the Common State Requirements for Acquiring a Teacher's Professional Qualification sets out 6 mandatory subject areas:
- pedagogy - 60 hours (of which at least 30 hours of lectures);
- basic specializing discipline - 45 hours (of which at least 15 hours of lectures);
- psychology - 60 hours (of which at least 30 hours of lectures);
- methodology of training in ... - from 90 to 180 hours depending on the professional qualification;
- inclusive education - 30 hours;
- information and communication technologies in training and work in digital environment - 30 hours.
Elective courses are related to the further development of the competencies necessary for the exercise of the teaching profession. They have a schedule of not less than 30 academic hours for each and are divided into two groups:
- first group - pedagogical, psychological, educational-managerial and private-didactic;
- second group - interdisciplinary and applied-experimental disciplines and disciplines, the training in which provides upgrading of competencies related to the specifics of the professional qualification.
Students must choose two subjects from each of these groups, as well as one optional course with a schedule of 15 academic hours.
The practical training is conducted in kindergartens and schools of the system of pre-school and school education and is carried out in the following forms of education with a minimum number of hours in academic hours:
- hospetation: 30 hours;
- current pedagogical practice: 60 hours;
- internship: 90 hours.
Hospitation is the observation and analysis of lessons and other organizational forms of education, carried out under the direct supervision of a high school teacher. Current pedagogical practice includes attendance, observation of lessons and other forms of training in order to prepare for pre-graduate pedagogical practice. The pre-graduate pedagogical practice is an independent participation of the students in the educational process under the guidance of a teacher and lecturer from the higher school.
Current pedagogical practice includes visiting, monitoring and conducting pedagogical situations, lessons and other organizational forms in kindergartens and schools together with a teacher-mentor under the guidance of a higher school teacher in order to prepare for the internship.
The internship includes independent participation of the students in the educational process by conducting pedagogical situations or lessons, as well as in other organizational forms in kindergartens and schools, conducted under the guidance of a teacher-mentor and a teacher from the higher school.
Level of specialisation
Based on the achieved level of qualification, the pedagogical specialists can consistently acquire professional-qualification degrees from 5 to 1. The trainings of the pedagogical specialists for acquiring professional-qualification degrees are carried out by higher schools, established by the order of the Higher Education Act. The awarded professional qualification degree is certified by a certificate. Ordinance № 15 of July 22, 2019 on the Status and Professional Development of Teachers, Principals and Other Pedagogical Specialists regulates the conditions to be met by persons applying for the respective professional qualification degree and the application procedure.
For each group in kindergarten there are two teachers who teach in the field of pre-school pedagogy as general practitioners and study more than one subject. The main task of any teacher is to organize the educational processes and establish conditions at kindergartens to the well-being of all children. They can choose among a range of training programs and work on full-time basis i.e. six hours per day. Music teachers have special musical education and should be able to play at least one musical instrument (piano, accordion, etc.). One music teacher is appointed for 12 groups of children and his/her task is to organize and provide musical environment for the children in order to boost their musical, aesthetic and creative development. At larger kindergartens of more than 8 groups psychologists are appointed. They have higher education and qualification in the corresponding relevant area. They can work on full-time basis as well as under a specific contract for certain hours and activities.
While the abovementioned requirements are sufficient for kindergarten teachers and primary teachers, high school teachers need a degree in the specific subject they are going to teach.
For work with children and students with special education needs one should have additional professional qualification in the corresponding direction of the ‘special pedagogy’ (‘defectology’) specialty. Specialists – teachers in subject from the arts field (music, dancing, drawing etc.), sports and foreign languages teaching in education institutions should have been trained in the respective professional direction and graduated in higher education.
Teachers of educators can only be people within a higher education institution with an acquired PhD in a pedagogical degree.
Qualification, Evaluation and Certificates
The training for acquiring the professional qualification "teacher" must ensure the acquisition of the competencies necessary for the exercise of the teaching profession, as follows:
- Competences for acquiring the professional qualification "children's teacher"
- Educational environment
- Pedagogical interaction with children
- Work with parents and the family community
- Educational work
- Work in a multicultural and inclusive environment
- Competences for acquiring the professional qualification "primary teacher", "teacher of ..." and "resource teacher":
- Relationships with students
- Relationships with other pedagogical specialists
- LeadershipWork with parents and the family community
- Educational work
- Work in a multicultural and inclusive school environment
Upon successful completion of their education, students in pedagogical specialties receive a diploma for the respective educational degree, and other students receive a certificate of teacher qualification in addition to their diploma. A certificate of teacher competence cannot be issued without a higher education diploma.Students in pedagogical degrees receive a diploma for their respective degree, whereas all other students receive a professional qualification certificate. The certificate can not be issued without higher education diploma.
Alternative Training Pathways
Currently, there are no ways of attaining a teaching professional qualification, other than those offered by higher education institutions.