Czechia is a small, advanced country (population 10.7 million) located in the heart of Europe with a long industrial tradition and a relatively decentralized administration including 14 regions and over 6 000 municipalities. The population is linguistically homogenous; the official language is Czech. National minorities are not numerous. Religious faith is traditionally low, only some 20 % of the population is religious. The total fertility rate was 1.6 in 2022. Unemployment is among the lowest in Europe in recent years (in April 2023 the unemployment rate was 2.8 %).
The country has a long tradition of having high educational status in the broadest strata of the population; more than 94 % of adults aged 25–64 years have at least upper secondary education (2022). The education system is characterized by a relatively high autonomy of schools at all educational levels. The total public expenditure on education as a share of GDP has been increasing in recent years, with 4.6 % of GDP in 2021.