Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends
This topic allows the reader to situate the country's education and training system within a broad territorial, political, demographic and linguistic framework.
If you would like country specific information on this topic, please go to the "This chapter by country" tab and click on the appropriate country.
This section outlines the main historical developments of each country that have led to its current political and social situation (including the foundations of the State in its present form), as well as recent reforms. It also states when the country first became a member of the EU (if applicable) or if and when it intends to become one.
Main executive and legislative bodies
This section provides information on the role and responsibility of the various bodies (at all levels national, ‘community’ and/or regional or local) and Ministries involved in education (such as Youth, Sport, the Family, Labour/Employment or Social Affairs).
Population: demographic situation, languages and religions
This section describes the land area and the current demographic situation of the country.
It may include statistical information with reference to official national sources on:
• The age distribution of the population
• Rates of employment and unemployment
• Immigration and migration flows
Focusing on the trends that might have an impact on education policy in their country, this section includes information on demographic developments e.g.
• Ageing of the population
• The degree of urbanisation
• Internal migration and other migratory movements
In addition, the linguistic situation of each country is described:
• Providing indications on the official/state language(s), regional/minority language(s) and the non-territorial languages
• Identify the language(s) of instruction (meaning languages used to teach one or more subjects in the curriculum), with a specification whether they are used at all educational levels.
The extent to which the main and/or official religions influence the organisation of the education system in the country is described (if indeed at all).
Political and economic situation
In this section, you will find the most significant facts concerning the country’s political and economic situation. Statistical information with reference to official national sources for the most recent available year, plus 2000 and 2005, may be provided on:
• GDP expenditure on education as a % of total GDP expenditure
• The educational attainment level of the adult population.