According to the 19th Article of the Fundamental Law of the Ministry of National Education, early childhood education is included within the formal educational institutions chosen voluntarily by the candidate students and families. The principles about opening an early childhood education school are discussed in the 21st Article of the same Law. It is stated in the 13th Article of the Law of Primary Education and Education that “Children who have not reached to the compulsory schooling age are offered early childhood education”.
With the law enforced in 1922, entitled Law on Organization and Duties of the Ministry of National Education, General Directorate of Early Childhood Education was established and the early childhood education institutions were administered by this General Directorate. Based on the Law, reorganization of the Ministry of National Education, dated 6/4/2011 numbered 6223, the Ministers cabinet approved the Law on 25/8/2011. Within this framework and with the Law Amending Ordinance numbered 652, General Directorate of Early Childhood Education and General Directorate of Primary Education were integrated under the General Directorate of Basic Education.
Studies carried out by the Constitution, 5378 No. disabilities and some Law and the Law on Amendments to the Decree, the Child Protection Act, No. 573 on Special Education Decree, the Regulation of Special Education Services, preschool and primary institutions regulation, secondary education institutions regulation, and Guidance Advisory services are conducted based on the relevant Regulation.
Definition of the Target Group(s)
Special Education refers to the educational provisions, educated personnel with the necessary competences, developed curricula and syllabi for this group of individuals as well as the pedagogic methodology and aims at equipping the those group of people with the academic competences in the appropriate educational contexts.
Individuals who need special education are trained to grow as productive and happy citizens and develop with their basic life skills in a satisfactory condition. Furthermore, suitable training programs, specific methods, using staff and tools; training needs, qualifications, interests and skills in line with the level of education are aimed to prepare them for business and professional field.
The provisions provided implicitly or explicitly for the individuals with special needs and the access to such educational provisions are facilitated by the regulation of the Ministry entitled "Regulation of Special Education Provisions".
Individuals with special educational need represent individuals with developmental characteristics that differ significantly from their peers in terms of educational qualifications.
- Individuals with high levels of autism: Individuals who need intensive special education and educational support services due to their lack of social interaction, verbal and nonverbal communication, and activity limitations,
- Individuals with high levels of intellectual disabilities: Individuals who need intensive special education and educational support services due to their lack of conceptual and mental functions, social, practical harmony and self-care for life time,
- Individuals with physical disabilities: Individuals who need intensive special education and educational support service due to their lack of muscle, and skeletal disorders of the nervous system,
- Individuals with very high level of intellectual disabilities: Individuals who need , lifelong care and supervision due to other disabilities besides self-care, everyday life and basic academic skills,
- Visually impaired individuals: Individuals who need special education support and training services due to the complete or partly loss of eyesight,
- Individuals with low levels of autism: Individuals who need low level of special education and educational support services due to their lack of social interaction, verbal and nonverbal communication, and activity limitations,
- Individuals with low levels of intellectual disabilities: Individuals who need low level of special education and educational support services due to their lack of conceptual and mental functions, social, practical harmony and self-care for life time,
- Hearing impaired individuals: Individuals who need special education and educational support services due to the loss of hearing sensitivity partially or completely,
- Individuals with moderate autism: Individuals who need intensive special education and educational support services due to their lack of verbal and nonverbal communication, and activity limitations in the events,
- Individuals with moderate intellectual disabilities: Individuals who need extensive special education and educational support services due to their lack of social and practical adaptive skills, social, practical harmony, acquisition of daily living skills and self-care for life time,
- Special talented individuals: Individuals who learn faster than their peers, who are ahead of their peers in terms of learner creativity, art and leadership, who have special academic skills, understand abstract ideas, like to act independently in the interests and demonstrate high levels of performance,
Special education program is given to individuals with special educational needs based on the characteristics of individual training needs, prepared in accordance with the objectives for performance including support for training. This program is called the Individualized Education Program.
Admission Requirements and Choice of School
Regular early childhood education institutions are not compulsory. According to the 10th Article of the Regulation of Primary Education Institutions, it is fundamental to have children get enrolled to the nearest early childhood education school where the family resides. However, with a documented proof, families can have their children get enrolled to early childhood education institutions which is close to their work places in case Child Placement Commission approves so and there is place in the school for the students. The pre-school to record-admission age limits are available before entering into force within 12 years of compulsory education laws, 36 - pre-school children between 72 months training. Those who reach 36 months can start their institutions. .However, preschool education compulsory basic education when the upper limit of the age of onset is altered in such a change.
School directorates may also direct 69, 70 and 71 months old children who have the right to enroll in pre-school education at the request of their parents or postpone their enrollment for one year.
Due to the explanations above, our children between 36 and 69 months will form the pre-school education age. According to the MEB Strategic Plan (2019-2023), by the end of 2023, it is aimed that the schooling rate of 3-5 year old children will be 55%, and the rate of primary school first grade students who have received pre-school education for at least one year is 100%. In this context, the goal of the Ministry of National Education is to ensure that all children receive at least one year of pre-school education and start primary school. Work continues to achieve these goals.
By 30 September 2012, children aged between 37-66 months were decided to be educated in kindergartens and application classrooms, and children aged between 48-66 months were in early childhood education schools. Following this drastic change, the Ministry has extended the beginning age to primary education from 66 to 69 and offered the families the right to have their children start primary education with a report acquired from a medical doctor. According to Regulation of MONE Pre-school and Primary Education Institutions, children's registration is done on the first class of primary school in the year in which the record after completing 66 months as of the end of September,. It appeared to be developmentally ready for school children between 60-66 months, and they will be enrolled in the first class at the written request of parents with primary school School administrations may offer early childhood education institutions to the children aged 66, 67, 68 months with their family’s approval, and to the children 69, 70, 71 months with a medical doctor report stating that the child concerned is not ready for the primary educationBased on the reforms defined above, children between 37-69 months compose the cycle of early childhood education. Previously, the target for schooling was 100% for the children aged 60-72 months, now with the new organization, a 100% schooling target has been set for the children aged between 48-66 months (MoNE, 2015-2019 Strategic Plan).
In addition, the target of the Ministry of National Education that all children take at least one year of pre-school education is to start primary school is still valid.
On the other hand, with the currently ongoing activities "3, 4, 5 Early Education Select" our preschool program has, the Ministry implements the goal of 100% enrolment again.
According to the 10th Article of the Regulation of Early Childhood Education Institutions, based on the report prepared by the Board of Evaluation of Special Education established in Guidance Research Centers, children aged between 37-66 months with slight cognitive and multiple disabilities may be placed to early childhood education institutions; 1 child to a classroom of 10 students, and 2 to a classroom populated 20 children.
According to the 29th Article of the Regulation of Special Education Services (Change: RG-21/7/2012-28360), early Childhood Education is compulsory for children between 37-66 months with special education needs, and the major principle for their education is that they are to be educated either with their peers displaying normal developmental process within mainstreaming education or in separate special education classrooms. However, this period can be extended up to 78 months with the approval of Board of Evaluation of Special education and with the written approval of the family (or officially responsible individual). Those children are placed to the appropriate educational institution.
According to Article 35 of the Regulation of Special Education Services "Early childhood education is education, including individuals from 0 to 36 months. Private training centers (schools), special education by special education services board director of education in line with the proposal to provide children with educational services to those in need of special education between the structures of these months, open early childhood education units. "Work are applied according to rules and procedures.
Special education services offered in the preschool period are carried out in two stages First, special education centres and special education kindergarten (schools) within special education services of national education opened by early childhood education units in order to provide children of 0-36 months with special educational needs in line with the recommendation of the Board.
Second, pre-school education is education for children of 36-66 month with special educational needs. In this period, pre-school is compulsory for children with special educational needs. It is essential that they be trained with their peers in the same classroom in mainstream or in special education classes. However, special education kindergartens for children of 48-66 months who could not continue the special education, schools and special education classrooms for children of 48-66 months can be opened.
Age Levels and Grouping of Pupils
According to the report prepared by the Special Education Evaluation Committee constructed in the guidance and research centers, children of 36 to 66 month-old are enrolled in these educational institutions through full-time mainstreaming. The class with ten children receives one, whereas the class with twenty receives two children who need special education (Pre-school and Primary Education Institutions Regulation Article 11-5 / d).
Since children in pre-school educational institutions are grouped according to the main classes in kindergarten and developmental characteristics of children, the activities are located in the program and prepared according to the developmental characteristics of children. Achievements and activities for 36-72 Kids Preschool Teacher Education Program as specified in the Manual of children 36-48 months, 48-60 months will be implemented according to the annual plan for children 60-72 months children.
The courses in the program are divided into mandatory and optional. Courses and course hours in primary education institutions are arranged by grade basis. See Table for the number and times of lessons in the classroom.Within the scope of Article 2 of the Chart; Flexibility will be provided in the application of elective courses in schools, and each school administration will create a group of maximum 10 courses in the elective courses section in line with their own possibilities, and students will choose their courses from the group created by the school administration in their own schools.
- Educational programs are prepared in the same training centre and programs are being implemented in all schools. Educational programs are prepared by the Board of Turkish Education and introduced by the Council of Ministers for approval. Courses are taught in Turkish in primary education. Education programs are being reviewed and updated regularly by the relevant departments when necessary and needed.
- Educational and training programs of elementary schools and institutions are prepared by the General Directorate of Basic Education and enter into force after approval by the Council.
- Primary education (in elementary-secondary) institutions; A total of weekly lessons in primary school is 20 hours. 26 mandatory hours in the first class, 4 hours of free activities, 2 and 3 in the 28-hour mandatory class, 2 hours of free activities. In the fourth class there are 30 mandatory hours. A total hours of weekly lessons at secondary school are 35. 29 compulsory hours and 6 elective courses.
- A total hour of weekly lessons in religious vocational secondary school is 36 hours. 34 mandatory hours in 5th 6th and 7th grades, whereas 2 hours are elective. There is one 1 hour elective course and 35 required hours in the classroom, given in the link.
Teaching Methods and Materials
In Special Education, early childhood and preschool education is carried out through training byinforming the family members to contribute to an individual's education and its support. Early childhood and preschool education services in schools and institutions are carried out at home when needed. Planning and coordination of early childhood and preschool education services for special education services are made by the board and planned for early childhood and preschool education services by implementing the priorities identified training needs of the individual and the family.
Progression of Pupils
In early childhood education institutions, at least one progress report developed based on the observation results is given to the parents. In the progress report, observation results are presented based on concrete examples. This report is prepared in the form of a report card with expressions such as good, fair, unsatisfactory, participated, not participated. Teacher fills in the Children Personal Information Form and Achievement Evaluation Form in the Okul Öncesi Eğitim Programı, record progress and health conditions and prepare year end progress report and students’ files. (Regulation on Pre-school Education Institutions, Article 30).
In primary education institutions (secondary school / religious secondary school); behaviour of students while in secondary school and religious secondary school is evaluated and processed into e-school system in every period of the school year by the branch counsellor (1) “Needs Improvement", (2) “Good” (3 ) “Very good” (MONE Regulation of Preschool and Primary Education Institutions, Article 29)
Children (kindergarten and kindergarten class of application) in the pre-school education are given Participation Certificate Annex-13 at the end of the school year.
Unless and until beyond the compulsory school age, the student’s connection with the school cannot be dismissed. In case of the request of the parent or student elementary school, junior high/religious study shows the status of the students who completed their secondary education certificate is prepared accordingly.
Education documents are regulated on the basis of the enrolment in the e-School system. Each study document is given security numbers by e-School system. Education documents are signed by the deputy headmaster and the principal. In the school where there is no the deputy director of the schools, it is signed by a teacher appointed by the school principal. (MONE Regulation of Preschool and Primary Education Institutions, Article 73)