According to the 56th Article of the Fundamental Law of National Education numbered 1739, the Ministry of National Education is responsible for running, monitoring and inspection of the educational and training provisions. In this respect, all of the educational provisions are open to the inspection and monitoring of the Ministry, including those provided by the state, private or volunteer organizations or institutions. Some of the state bodies that are responsible for specific parts of the adult education and training are as follows:
Institutions and Organizations Related to Adult Education in Turkey
Ministry of National Education
1739 Basic Law of National Education
Vocational Education Law numbered 3308
Law No. 5580 on Private Education Institutions
Regulation on Non-formal Education Institutions
Regulation on the Implementation of Public Education Activities
The Ministry of Family, Labor and Social Services
Active labor market programs
Turkey qualifications framework
Law No. 4904 on Turkish Labour Institution
Law No. 5544 on Vocational Qualifications Authority
Other institutions and organizations
European Union Unit
Ministry of Agriculture
The Union of Chambers and Commodity Exchanges of Turkey
Confederation of Turkish Tradesmen and Craftsmen
Training programs for women and the elderly
Handicraft Training Centers (HTC)
Provincial directorates of agriculture village courses
General and vocational courses
Training of employees by member firms
Vocational training for students and unemployed
Private Education Institutions
Education programs approved by the Ministry
Supporting private schools in Organized industrial zones under 5580
1. Ministry of National Education
According to the Basic Law of National Education No. 1739, the Turkish national education system consists of two main sections: formal education and non-formal education.
- Formal education contains pre-school education, primary education, and secondary education and higher education institutions.
- Non-formal education, on the other hand, covers all of the educational activities organized beside or outside formal education.
To this end, MoNE sets out national policies and strategies for each stage of education and training; implementation and monitoring of these activities.
1.1. General Directorate of Lifelong Learning (GDLL)
In order to ensure the employability and socio-cultural development of the individuals at different education and age levels; to improve their knowledge, skills and competences, to increase their access to learning, and ultimately to realize a transformation from Learning Single to Learning to Collecting and Learning Turkey, The GDoLL conducts the following duties in line with the principles and objectives of the public education centers (HEM), maturation institutes and open educational schools and national education (GDoLL, 2016 annual report):
- To establish, implement, monitor and evaluate policies to disseminate education and training in a lifelong manner, other than compulsory education.
- To carry out public education/training and open education services.
- To provide education and training in general or vocational and technical education fields through non-formal education to citizens who have not entered the formal education system, separated or finished any educational level.
- To prepare education and training programs, textbooks, educational tools and materials for non-formal education and training schools and institutions and to present them to the Board of Education and Training Board.
LLL Institutions Affiliated to the General Directorate
Public Education Centers
Number of Courses and Trainees Participated in PEC Courses in 2020
Type of the Course
Areas With The Most Courses
When the course areas preferred by the trainees are examined, it is seen that they mostly tend to courses in the fields of handicraft technology, sports, religious education, personal development, music and performing arts, health, literacy, clothing production technology, foreign languages and information technologies.
When the course programs preferred by the trainees are examined, it is seen that Hygiene Education for Employees in the Food and Water Sector, Social Harmony and Life, Reading the Holy Quran (Elifba), Computer Management (Operation), English A1 Level, Volleyball, First Aid, Football, Adults. For Quran-I Kerim (Elif-Be) Reading and Turkish Sign Language (Tid) Course Program comes.
1.2. General Directorate of Vocational and Technical Education (GDVTE)
The General Directorate for Vocational and Technical Education (GDVTE) is the unit responsible for the preparation of vocational and technical education and training programs, the development of policies and strategies to strengthen the education-employment relationship and the coordination of activities.
In the vocational and technical secondary schools, vocational training centers and vocational and technical training centers, certificate programs for adults are organized in the fields and branches indicated in the Vocational Education Law no. 3308 except for the secondary education program.
Vocational and technical education schools and institutions may offer vocational courses, development and integration courses and special training courses within the scope of 37th, 38th and 39th items of the Law no. 3308.
2. The Ministry of Labour, Social Services and Family
The Ministry of Family and Social Services and the Ministry of Labor and Social Security were established by the Presidential Decree on the Establishment of the Ministry of Family and Social Services and the Ministry of Labor and Social Security, published in the Official Gazette No. 31461 dated 21 April 2021. The mission of the Ministry is to develop and implement holistic and fair social service models for the protection, strengthening and development of the individual, family and social values.
The duties of the Ministry of Family and Social Services regarding adult education are as follows:
• To take measures to ensure the vocational rehabilitation of the disabled,
• Strengthening the family with education, counseling and social assistance, primarily in order to raise and support the child within the family;
• To protect the integrity of the family, to provide all kinds of material, moral and social support to the members of the broken families in need of protection, assistance and care and their children; To make the necessary plans for this purpose, to carry out training activities.
2.1 Vocational Qualifications Agency (VQA)
To take necessary precautions for the establishment and operation of the professional qualification system, Vocational Qualifications Authority (VQA) was established in 2006 with the aim of establishing and operating a national qualification system that is compatible with the European Union and has been provided with international quality assurance. The VQA provides recognition and certification of learning outcomes determined by national qualifications (NQ) through the authorization of professional bodies, employer-employee unions, universities' personnel certification bodies, and independent personnel certification bodies.
The main objectives of the VQA are to establish and operate a national qualification system, to ensure that education is aligned with employment, to lead to the formation of qualified human resources, and to ensure that the activities are presented effectively and efficiently according to economic and social needs. It is among the priorities of the agency to ensure the settlement of quality assurance culture and consciousness in education and business, to promote lifelong learning and to facilitate the mobility of the workforce. VQA is not an educational institution, but coordinates the preparation of national qualifications (nq) and national qualifications (nq), taking into account the needs of the labor market, and the assessment, evaluation and certification activities based on NLs through the Accredited Certification Bodies.
2.2. Turkish Employment Agency
Turkish Employment Agency Law was reshaped with the number 4904 which was adopted by the Grand National Assembly of Turkey in 25.06.2003 and came into force by being promulgated in the Official Gazette with the date 05.07.2003 and the number 25159.It is responsible for establishing an effective labor market information system, matching labor supply and demand in line with the needs of the market, facilitating employment through active labor force programs, provision of temporary income support for lost business, and regulations on working life. Within the scope of active labor services, vocational training courses, on-the-job training programs, entrepreneurship training programs, community benefit programs and other courses, programs, projects and special applications are organized. The unemployment insurance fund was created to finance the activities. Within the scope of the Fund, there are unemployment allowance, short working allowance, and payment of wage guarantee fund, half working allowance and job loss compensation (İŞKUR, 2018) in order to support the unemployed, employees and employers.
In order to increase the competitiveness and levels of small and medium-sized enterprises in meeting the economic and social needs of the country, to increase their competitiveness and levels and to carry out the integration in accordance with the economic developments in the industry, the Small and Medium Enterprises Development and Support Administration was established with Law No. 3624. KOSGEB's tasks for adult education are:
- To establish the Applied Technical Training Centers related to the organization of non-formal education programs in KOSGEB service centers, to determine training needs of enterprises and to provide necessary training,
- To take necessary precautions for the development and dissemination of entrepreneurship culture and environment and support entrepreneurs and entrepreneurs in this context.
3.Center for European Union Education and Youth Programs, Ministry of Foreign Affairs (National Agency of Turkey)
The Turkish National Agency became a full member of the EU Education and Youth Programs on April 1, 2004 and is the institution responsible for the execution of these programs in Turkey. The mission of the Presidency is to carry out programs that provide financial support, learning and mobility opportunities in the field of education and youth, and to implement new ones, with other countries and international organizations, especially the European Union. The Erasmus+ Program, covering the years 2021-2027, is the current grant program of the EU in the fields of education, youth and sports, and is a continuation of Erasmus+ (2014-2020). It supports education, training, internship, professional development, non-formal learning-based youth activities and cooperation between institutions abroad. The general aim of the program is to contribute to the dimensions of sustainable growth, quality in the profession, social cohesion, promoting innovation, strengthening European identity and active citizenship by supporting the education, professional and personal development of individuals in the fields of education, training, youth and sports through lifelong learning.
The task of the National Agency is to carry out the duties depicted within the new Erasmus+ Program (2021-2027) concerning inclusion, digital agenda and green agenda.
4.The Ministry of Food, Agriculture, and Livestock
The Ministry of Food, Agriculture, and Livestock organizes the activities with the National Agricultural Education Center Directorate (NAECD). It continues its activities with Handicraft Training Centers and village courses (NAECD, 2018).
The Law for Municipalities numbered 5393, Mass Education Institutions Regulation of the MoNE gives the municipalities the right to opening free-of-charge vocational and general courses and programs. Ankara Metropolitan Municipality's BELTEK and Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality's ISMEK courses can be cited as an example.
In addition, the Union of Municipalities of Turkey (TBB) continues its activities with the aim of improving the professional skills of the staff of the Municipalities Association Academy and the local administration units. In addition, the training units established in the local municipalities organize courses in cooperation with the provincial national education directorates (TBB, 2017).
6. Professional Organizations
TOBB, TESK, and other professional organizations are responsible for organizing vocational training activities for their members. Funding of activities is financed by the funds allocated by their own resources and by the education budget.