Skip to main content
European Commission logo

Eurydice

EACEA National Policies Platform:Eurydice
Initial education for academic staff in higher education

Germany

9.Teachers and education staff

9.4Initial education for academic staff in higher education

Last update: 27 November 2023

Full-time scientific and creative arts staff at institutions of higher education consist mainly of the following groups:

  • professors and junior professors (Hochschullehrer)
  • scientific and creative arts staff (wissenschaftliche/künstlerische Mitarbeiter)
  • teaching staff for special tasks (Lehrkräfte für besondere Aufgaben)

Professors and junior professors perform the duties relating to science, the arts, research, teaching and continuing education which are incumbent upon their higher education institution independently in their respective subject areas in accordance with their own specific employment status. Scientific and creative arts staff are responsible for academic services. These include teaching students specialised knowledge and practical skills and instructing them in the use of scientific methods. In particular cases, scientific and creative arts staff can also be entrusted with the independent performing of tasks in research and teaching.

If teaching serves mainly to communicate practical skills and knowledge, teaching staff for special tasks can be entrusted with this. Teaching staff at Berufsakademien include both part-time and full-time staff. In accordance with the Berufsakademie laws at Land level, part-time teaching staff at Berufsakademien should be recruited from higher education institutions, schools, industry, the liberal professions, social services and administration.

Employment Requirements

The employment requirements for professors at institutions of higher education are as follows:

  • a degree from an institution of higher education
  • teaching ability
  • particular aptitude for academic work which is usually demonstrated by the quality of a Promotion (doctorate) or a particular aptitude for work in the creative arts

Depending on the type of post the employment requirements may also include:

  • additional academic achievements or additional achievements in the creative arts
  • particular achievements in the application or development of academic or scientific knowledge and methods from several years of professional experience
  • proof of several years of school practice in professorships which involve the performance of educational or didactic tasks in teacher training

As a rule, professors at Fachhochschulen are not required to have any additional academic achievements. Instead, they must have at least five years' professional experience in the development and application of scientific methods and findings.

Employment requirements for junior professors (Juniorprofessoren) basically are:

  • a degree from an institution of higher education
  • teaching ability
  • particular aptitude for academic work which is usually demonstrated by the exceptional quality of a doctorate

If the candidate has been employed as a member of scientific staff before or after the doctorate, the phases of doctorate and employment taken together should not exceed six years, in the subject area of medicine nine years.

The employment requirement for wissenschaftliche Mitarbeiter is, in principle, a degree from an institution of higher education.

Lehrkräfte für besondere Aufgaben do not have to meet professorial qualifications for recruitment.

Professors at the state-run Berufsakademien in Sachsen must meet the same requirements as those appointed as professors at Fachhochschulen. They must give at least 40 per cent of the instruction. If teaching offers serve mainly to communicate practical skills and knowledge, teaching staff for special tasks can be entrusted with this.